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Make one up please. Any high school is an organization, and it exists and work according to the main principles of any other organization. So, we can apply four organizational theories, which were shown in the works of G. Hunt and K. Miller, to educational process.
In the works communication skills were pointed as the basic difference between theories. Because communication skills are important to developing professional and personal relationships. Relationships begin and grow through communication, and the quality of communication influences the quality of relationships. Effective communication skills are essential.
Good communication is required for individuals or individual organizations to establish coalitions, cooperate with one another, determine a common purpose and coordinate efforts. This is particularly important when working with groups at the high school. Our behaviours toward people are often based on our observations with no real knowledge of whom the person is or anything about him or her. With so many choices, it is sometimes difficult to know how best to communicate. Different methods are more effective in some situations that others. Emotion in the workplace has increasingly become an issue of importance to organizational and management scholars.
This article takes a very personal look at emotion in the workplace. Scholarship in the areas of emotion, identification, and community are drawn on in the consideration of lessons learned from this experience. These texts analyze the major communication theories. The material strikes a balance between humanistic, scientific, classical, and contemporary theories. The discussion of responsibility and power in high schools is insightful.
Miller's text presents organizational communication from both a communication and managerial perspective: 1. Classical Approaches. 2. Human Relations Approaches. 3. Systems Approaches. 4. Cultural Approaches.
So, lets examine them step by step. Henri Fayol was one of the first theorists who believed that Management was an acquired skill and was a key figure in the turn-of-the-century, Classical School of Management theory. He gave the life to the term centralization. Centralization in terms of what Fayol thought, was essential to the organization and was simply a natural consequence of organizing.
Centralization concerns itself with the modes of control over the actions of the organization. It concerns itself with the reporting relationships in an organization from top executive to the ordinary worker. Its main premise is that it is sensible, clear and understood. It is based on the task that workers need to see how their role fits into the organization. Therefore policies, rules, instructions and actions should be understandable and understood. Tough in today's work environment would suggest that there is no place for Fayol's theory.
Max Weber has probably been one of the most influential users of the word in its social science sense. He is well-known for his study of bureaucratization of society. Weber described the ideal type bureaucracy in positive terms, considering it to be a more rational and efficient form of organization. According to his terminology, bureaucracy is part of legal domination. However, he also emphasized that bureaucracy becomes inefficient when a decision must be adopted to an individual case. According to Weber, the attributes of modern bureaucracy include its impersonality, concentration of the means of administration.
An official is responsible only for the impartial execution of assigned tasks and must sacrifice his personal judgment if it runs counter to his official duties. As Max Weber himself noted, in reality no ideal type organization can exist. Thus the real bureaucracy will be less optimal and effective than his ideal model. But sometimes bureaucracy can lead to the treatment of individual human beings as impersonal objects. This process has been criticized by many philosophers.
Taylorism is closely associated with mass production methods. This sort of task-oriented optimization of work tasks is nearly ubiquitous today. The arguments began from his observation that, in general, persons in repetitive jobs work at the slowest rate that goes unpunished. This slow rate of work was a combination of the inherent laziness of people. He therefore proposed that the work practice that had been developed in most work environments was crafted, intentionally or unintentionally, to be very inefficient in its execution. From this he posited that there was one best method for performing a particular task, and that if it were taught to workers, their productivity would go up.
Taylor recognized Division of labour that there is a certain suitability of certain people for particular jobs. In general, pure Taylorism views workers or students simply as machines, to be made efficient by removing unnecessary or wasted effort. All problems caused by Taylorism led to its replacement by the human relations school of management. Human relations theory sees humans as valuable resources for the company. Human relations theory says satisfaction will lead to productivity. But what degree do workers want involvement?
In what ways is involvement controlling? Criticisms of human relations was that it was too concerned with person satisfaction, too often a sham, not much actual evidence in support of human relations ideas, however it is appealing. General characteristics: decisions made at lower levels -- participative management, more communication, , more openness and trust; more opportunity for creativity. As Maslow argues, at the most basic level there may be interdependent and interwoven drives of unequal potency and potentiality, and our view of them depends on our perspective. Maslow's point not only loses its critical strength but can be used to justify my approach and perspective. Second, Maslow argues that we must define needs and goals.
The approach underlying the determination of motivational components does rest in part on goals, as well as on observed behavior and physiological processes. The motivational components will then tell us that the desire or want of individual in a specific situation to do or achieve x with y is a function of his position in his motivational space as defined by these components. Frederick Herzberg, contributed to human relations and motivation two theories of motivation as follows: Hygiene Theory, Motivation. The first part of the motivation theory involves the hygiene theory and includes the job environment.
The hygiene factors include: the company or structure, its policies and its administration, the kind of supervision which people receive, working conditions interpersonal relations etc... These factors do not lead to higher levels of motivation but without them there is dissatisfaction. Both approaches (hygiene and motivation) must be done simultaneously. Treat people as best you can so they have a minimum of dissatisfaction. Theory X and Theory Y are theories of human motivation developed by Douglas McGregor that have been used in human resource management, organizational behavior, and organizational development. They describe two very different attitudes toward workforce motivation.
McGregor felt that structures followed either one or the other approach. In theory X it is considered persons are inherently lazy and will avoid work if they can. Because of this workers need to be closely supervised and comprehensive systems of controls developed. According to McGregor, most managers tend to subscribe to Theory X, in that they take a rather pessimistic view of their employees (students). The result of this line of thought is that Theory X managers naturally adopt a more authoritarian style based on the threat of punishment. Theory Y proposes ambitious workers, self-motivated, anxious to accept greater responsibility, and exercise self-control and self-direction.
A Theory Y manager (teacher) will try to remove the barriers that prevent workers from fully actualizing their potential. McGregor's work was based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs. He grouped Maslow's hierarchy into "lower order" (Theory X) needs and "higher order" (Theory Y) needs. Today the theories are seldom used.
They are thought to express extreme positions that are not realistic. However Theory X and Theory Y are still important, and remains a guiding principle of positive approaches to improving organizational culture. Taylor's theories were clearly at the root of a global revival in theories of scientific management in the latter two decades of the 20 th century. So, the situation at the beginning of the 21 st century is an uneasy balance between man and machine. Looking to the near future, machines seeming to hold many advantages and the widespread implementation of modern day Taylorism can be shown to be at the root of the explosion of productivity around the world. Systems Theory aims to specify possible courses of action, together with their risks, costs and benefits.
Systems theory is closely connected to cybernetics, and also to system dynamics etc. The ideas and principles of Cybernetics and Systems Science are intended to be applicable to anything. They regard as complex, multi-dimensional networks of information systems, and are generally called "cybernetic systems." Knowledge of the system results in serious challenges to traditional methodology. Cybernetic systems are constructive, in that as they tend to increase in size and complexity; are rich in internal and external feedback. It may result in the reflexive phenomena of self-reference, self-modeling, self-production, and self-reproduction. Due to John Murphy we can say about new science.
He is the author of Technical Analysis of the Futures Markets and Inter market Technical Analysis. He shows us how to use activity in surrounding world in the same way that most people use traditional technical indicators for directional clues. This is a guide to inter market analysis. Murphy teaches how to focus outward, rather than inward. And for sure, it provides a more rational understanding of technical forces. The view of organizations as cultures grew in popularity in the 1980 s and focuses our attention on the symbols, metaphors, language practices, artifacts, and systems of values that make up each organization.
By understanding this cultural system, we also gain insight into how it shapes the communication climate in a classroom. A defensive communication climate can retard one's willingness to communicate information that may be valuable regardless of communication skill proficiency. Understanding the components of supportive climates is an initial step to creating an environment conducive to effective organizational communication. Students will learn about the social factors contributing to the interest in understanding organizations as cultures, various views of organizational culture, the relationship between organizational culture and communication climate. Cultures generally do not change easily; they provide stability against change.
Culture can be measured, can be related to other organizational variable, can be changed and managed. A strong culture predicts short-term, but not long-term performance. But the theory may have some prejudice: negative attitude toward someone based on social identity (ethnicity, race, sex, age, etc. ). Edgar Schein's presented theory of organizational consultation in his book Process Consultation. He wanted to offer the model he used when consulting with organizations on developmental issues as his contribution to the theory of organizational development. At that time the human side of the equation at work got very little attention.
Human Resource was just beginning to emerge as a discipline. Process consultation is organized by Schein in three parts. There are several key underlying assumptions, one of which is that administrators have a constructive intent to improve things but they often do not know what is wrong and need special help in diagnosing their problems. This help can be provided by outside consultants. His belief that the role of the consultant is to pass on skills and values to the client as opposed to passing on knowledge is an essential differentiation between Schein's model and other consulting models. The nature of the help the consultant offers is clearly focused on teaching managers to help themselves to solve their problems.
According to Schein, helping authority becomes less reliant or dependent on the consultant has many key benefits. Schein believes that all organizational problems are fundamentally problems involving human interactions and processes, and every organization has some processes that can be improved. Group norms and culture, leading and influencing are the processes Schein examines. One of the tasks during this stage is defining the psychological contract. Having examined 4 main theories with their perspectives and problems we can come to the conclusion that educational process at high schools are a complicated and constantly developing process which can take into consideration all theories and methods to gain the maximum of progress. Bibliography: Appadurai, Arjun.
The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspective. Social Science, 1988 Breeze, J. D. Henri Fayol: A New Definition of Administration.
The 40 th Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management, 1980 Miller, Katherine. Organizational Communication Approaches and processes. 4 th edition. Mohammadian, Mason. Advances in Intelligent Systems: Theory and Applications. Computers, 2000. Hunt, G.
T. Communication Skills in the Organization. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1996 Fisher, C. D.
Organizational Socialization: An Integrative View. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 1986. web
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