NOTE: Free essay sample provided on this page should be used for references or sample purposes only. The sample essay is available to anyone, so any direct quoting without mentioning the source will be considered plagiarism by schools, colleges and universities that use plagiarism detection software. To get a completely brand-new, plagiarism-free essay, please use our essay writing service.
One click instant price quote
... repressive forms of deviance such as predation, defiance and submission. (p. 284) Comparing the three theories, all three appeared to derive explanation of deviant behavior from factors external to the individual. From the lack of appropriate parental guidance to social pressures and coercive environment, these were attributed as causes of deviant behavior. Some form of control was exercised on the individual.
The parents naturally impose some form of discipline on their children. The more dominant segment of society places undue pressure on weaker individuals because of the presence of social inequities and abuse of power. All three failed to consider the possibility that the individual is also accountable for his acts. One alternative way of explaining deviance and the tendency of individuals to commit crime is to consider the problem of evil. According to Darwinian views, evil was a necessary consequence of natural selection.
It stemmed from the evolution of the species needing to employ or inflict what constituted as evil in order to evolve or survive. If the context of predation according to traditional views was a form of evil, for Darwin, predation was simply a situation where only the fittest would prevail. His views contrasted with those of theistic or creationist views where evil was attributed to Satan or Adam and Eve succumbing to temptation. Darwin viewed evil as an imperative when species developed adaptive strategies.
The suffering often experienced by man or animal species was a consequence of the failure to adapt. Human aggressive behavior, often considered as motivated by evil according to Christian views, would have a different connotation according to Darwin's evolution theory. Aggressive behavior, according to Darwin was a form of self-preservation. If the resulting consequences resulted in bodily harm or death, then it was merely an expedient purpose for establishing higher order. Social norms would frown on such behavior because humans were sentient beings and social cooperation and reason existed.
Darwin's context of evil in the evolution theory was a necessary component to the natural selection. What connoted as evil in Darwinian view may not be compatible with traditional Christian views. Moreover, evil for Darwin was expedient in the evolution of the species. Intrinsic to the survival of the fittest mode was predation, death and decay.
All were necessary so that the more dominant organism prevailed. While Darwin's concept evil might help rationalize what evil men do, it was difficult to admit the idea into the realm of Christian morality. In all the violence that man has committed against his neighbor, friend, and rival, the acts of men taking lives would hardly constitute as an intrinsic nature of survival. Instead, evil as seen in the most heinous acts would hardly justify this view.
References Geis, G. (2000). On the absence of self-control as the basis for a general theory of crime: : a critique. Theoretical Criminology, 4 (1), 35 - 53. Piquero, A. R. and Hickman, M. (2003).
Extending Tittle's control balance theory to account for victimization. Criminal Justice And Behavior, 30 (3), 282 - 301 Simons, R. L. et al (1998).
A test of latent trait versus life course perspectives on the stability of adolescent antisocial behavior. Criminology, 36 (2), 217 - 244 Unnever, J. D. , Colvin, M. and Cullen, F. T. (2004).
Crime and coercion: a test of core theoretical propositions. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 41 (3), 244 - 268. Social Bonding Theory Travis Hirschi's social bond theory in principle attempts to answer the question why individuals refrain from pursuing deviant behavior in contrast to the question why some individuals have the propensity to divert from socially acceptable norms. His theory is based on the assumption that when an individuals bond with society is severed or weakened, that individual would display deviant behavior (Ozbay and Oscar, 2008, p. 137). With social bond as the key concept to the theory, it involved four major components. They are attachment to parents, teachers, and peers; commitment to conventional kinds of action (education); involvement in conventional activities (sports); and belief in the importance of moral norms. (p. 137).
In Hirschi's attachment theory, he proposed that individuals have some sensitivity on how others would think about them. With attachment theory as a key component in Hirschi's social bonding theory, the theory proponent assumed that since some individuals are less sensitive to others and appeared to detached, they are construed to be pathological and prone to delinquency. (Schinkel, 2002, p. 126) Schinkel (2002) approached the definitions of conventional to mean non-delinquent while non-conventional meant delinquent or deviant from the norm (p. 126). This formed a tautology stating, People less engaged in conventional activities will be more engaged in non-conventional activities. (p. 126) Commitment refers to the concept that rules are generally followed to avoid the consequences when they are violated. Schinkel (2002) observed that this definition is highly ambiguous because it brings to question if individuals are really fear reprisals for breaking the law (p. 126). Such a definition of commitment, according to Schinkel (2002) tends to paint a picture that morality is something purely oppressive, and that man, moreover, is deprived of any intrinsic morality. (p. 126) The concept of involvement as proposed by Hirschis implied that if individuals were preoccupied with conventional and socially acceptable activities, he / she would generally be unable to engage in activities that were frowned upon by society. Schinkel (2002) is critical of Hirschi's point of view in this aspect because this assumption stated that essentially, due to lack of opportunities, individuals would be less inclined to commit crimes.
This assertion also showed that crimes or deviant behavior were done outside the usual 9 -to- 5 time frame that generally defined conventional activities (p. 126). Schinkel (2002) contradicted this assumption by illustrating how within the realm of what was acceptable, individuals could act contrary to acceptable social norms (p. 127). The concept of belief in Hirschi's social bond theory assumed that rules in society were equally applicable to all individuals (p. 127). Schinkel (2002) contravened this idea because this could be construed that every member of the society viewed rules in the same manner. In reality, the concept of rules could be viewed quite differently depending on the individuals position in social space and the amount of power he / she wielded within that specific social structure (p. 127).
The belief concept as forwarded by Hirschis was inherently flawed because it assumed that interpreting the meaning of rules among individuals were equal (p. 128). To improve the academic performance and social behavior among emotionally disturbed and disabled children, the proposal will create Appropriate Educational Opportunity for students with emotional and behavioral disorders through the use of positive behavior support (PBS). The project will teach students how to access socially appropriate leisure and recreation, community services and employment opportunities. Through positive behavior, the project proposes to increase student community participation.
The proposal intends to increase positive behavior of the students, increase academic performances and reduce the incidence of disciplinary actions and referrals. It also aims to increase the students time spent outside self-contained classrooms and allow them the opportunity to socially interact with other members of the community. For educators, the experience will allow them to incorporate appropriate transition planning for these students to prepare them for positive, pro-social community participation. Using the data on student behavior like daily classroom behavior sheets, discipline records and transcripts to analyze and evaluate the outcomes, the project proponent hopes to make a significant contribution to the body of knowledge on appropriate educational opportunities for emotionally disturbed students and replicate the study in other institutions offering special education classes.
The participants of the intervention will be pre-selected from self-contained classes for emotionally disturbed students in local high schools. Each intervention module will be composed of 14 students and six staff members. Before implementing the project, two teachers, a nurse and a social worker will discuss the specific needs of the children and determine which type of community participation activities is most appropriate for each month. Next, clear parameters on eligibility to join the activities are posted so the students are informed.
After the appropriate mechanics were established, the team determines which students are eligible and takes them out to a monthly sponsored trips or outings. Some of the possible activities considered were going to the movies, theater or concerts, enjoying a sport or game (i. e bowling), going on a picnic or eating out. To analyze and evaluate the outcomes of each activity, the project proponent will keep track of each participants progress. Data will be obtained from daily behavior sheets of each participant, discipline records, transcripts, and attendance sheets. After each activity, the team evaluates and monitors the performance and behavior of the participants and compiles a monthly report.
A potential difficulty in the project is getting parental consent to allow their children on a supervised trip outside the school. The team members assigned to take the children to an outing must be prepared to assume the responsibility for the safety and well being of each participant. They must also be able to deal with behavior related problems while outside the school premises. References Ozbay, O. and Ocean, Y. Z. (2008).
A test of Hirschis's Social Bonding Theory: A comparison of male and female delinquency. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 52 (2), 134 - 157. Schinkel, W. (2002). The modernist myth in criminology. Theoretical Criminology, 6 (2), 123 - 144. Drug Use Forecasting. 1996. 95.
Washington D. C. National Institute of Justice Unnever, J. D. , Colvin, M. and Cullen, F. T. (2004).
Crime and coercion: a test of core theoretical propositions. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 41 (3), 244 - 268.
Free research essays on topics related to: aggressive behavior, evolution theory, deviant behavior, attachment theory, socially acceptable
Research essay sample on Deviant Behavior Socially Acceptable