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Example research essay topic: Carbon Dioxide Emissions Renewable Energy Sources - 1,616 words

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I. Introduction (Fossil Fuel Energy) 4 web web Of Fossils / index . htm web web web Published in Victoria, 1995, by Cardigan Street Publishers. Published in Great Britain, 1990, by Gloucester Press. Energy Resources - Nuclear and Fossil Fuels Published in NSW, 1995, by Spinney Press. Energy Resources for a Changing World Published in Great Britain, 1992, by Cambridge University Press.

Andres, R. J. , G. Marland, I. Fung, and E.

Matthews. A 1 x 1 distribution of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, 1950 - 1990. Published in United States, 1996. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 10, 419 - 429. Imagine that millions of years ago, earth was covered with tropical trees and swamps, which are ideal conditions for forming fossil fuels.

All were formed many millions of years ago during the time of the dinosaurs therefore When plants and dinosaurs and other ancient creatures died, they decomposed and became buried, layer upon layer under the ground. It took millions of years to form these layers into a hard, black colored rock-like substance called coal, a thick liquid called oil or petroleum, and natural gas. Fossil fuels can be found under the earth in many locations around the country. Each of the fossil fuels is extracted out of the ground differently. Fossil are found in earth, rock, and clay. This process forms part of the carbon cycle.

Fossil fuels are mined by people for use as an energy source. Fossil fuel energy is stored energy which is given off when the fuel is burned. Most energy given off by fossil fuel energy is sometimes released in the form of heat. Their are three types of fossil fuel coal, oil and natural gas. 90 % of the energy we use in this country comes from fossil fuels. Aside from the environmental impacts of exploration and extraction of fossil fuels, their use causes such things as smog, acid rain, and contributes to global warming. Furthermore, the world's supply of fossil fuels is not limitless.

Coal, oil, and natural gas heat our homes, power our cars, generate electricity, and basically run America's industries. As we begin to rely on these sources more and more, their abundance becomes less and less. What is important to realise is that these fuels are in very short supply, with coal expected to last for up to 150 years, oil for 50 years and gas for 25 years. Industrialized countries such as the United States rely heavily on the burning of non-renewable fuels in order to provide energy. Non- renewable supplies are like life-saving once they are gone they can never be replaced so are the opposite to renewable energy sources. Burning of such fuels can cause air pollution problems.

Tracking Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil Fuel Burning The largest single source of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2) is the burning of fossil fuel (coal, oil and gas), which currently accounts for ~ 80 % of the annual emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Nitrogen is also a byproduct of fossil fuel use. Finding new reserves often means exploring and tapping such environmentally sensitive areas such as the Artic National Wildlife Refuge. This becomes extremely costly, and some argue, draws attention as well as funds away from finding alternative sources. The alternatives are, mostly, the renewables.

Although conservation and nuclear energy are also thought of as fossil fuel substitutes, it is sun power, wind power, and water power that gets support from the environmentally conscious. Hydroelectricity accounts for nearly 4 % of the U. S. energy, with solar and wind power making up less then 1 %. Wind farms in the United Kingdom have met with some success, and people who support these options maintain that most renewables are now capable of producing energy at rates which are competative with other sources. Their implementation is quick and relatively easy, and as the technology is used it will be refined to become even more efficient.

Best of all, renewable resources produce no air or water pollution. Although very few actually argue against the development of these options, many people simply don't believe that the sun, wind, and rain can produce enough energy to meet our needs. The unreliability of the sun and the wind make for these options to be met with skepticism. Plus, there is the issue of the amount of land needed to make solar or wind power a reality. Currently, the technology just isn't advanced enough to make these options viable on a large scale without covering a plot of land the size of some states. Of course hydroelectricity has been around, and been doing well for quite awhile.

However, environmentalists are now beginning to notice the effects damming up rivers seems to have on the immediate surroundings. The fish population, as well as plants and wildlife are all impacted when man steps in and alters the natural state. COAL is a fossil fuel that is found under the ground in solid form. Coal is mined and transported by truck, barge or train. It is taken to a place where it will be stored or burned.

Coal is the fossilized remains of plants, this occured on land. The example below shows how coal is gradually formed over millions of years and forms part of the carbon cycle, showing why it is a non-renewable resource rather than a renewable one. Oil and gas are formed in a very similar way but rather than on land this occurs in the sea. OIL is another fossil fuel that is found under the ground and in the sea in a liquid form. Oil is collected by drilling in a deep well into the ground and then pumping it out. It is transported by pipe lines or oil tankers to a place where it will be stored or burned.

Oil can also be converted into gasoline. Both oil and gasoline are burned in automobiles. Oil and gas however are formed in the sea, underneath rocks, which means that drilling rigs have to be set up to allow this supply to be got at. An example of how oil and natural gas is formed is show.

One such supply is the North Sea, and some oil fields are often on land. The petroleum or crude oil must be changed or refined into other products before it can be used. Oil Refineries are where oil is refined and stored in large tanks until it is sent to various places to be used. Oil is also made into many different products -- fertilizers for farms, the clothes you wear, the toothbrush you use, the plastic bottle that holds your milk, the plastic pen that you write with. They all came from oil.

There are thousands of other products that come from oil. Almost all plastic comes originally from oil. Can you think of some things made from oil? At oil refineries, crude oil is split into various types of products by heating the thick black oil. The products include gasoline, diesel fuel, aviation fuel, home heating oil, oil for ships and oil to burn in power plants to make electricity. NATURAL GAS is also a fossil fuel that is a mixture of gases found under the ground.

Natural gas is collected and transported almost the way oil is. Natural gas burns in home furnaces and ranges. Natural gas is lighter than air. Natural gas is mostly made up of a gas called methane. Methane is a simple chemical compound that is made up of carbon and hydrogen atoms. It's chemical formula is CH 4.

This gas is highly flammable. Natural gas is usually found near petroleum underground. The natural gas is pumped from below ground and sent in large pipelines like the ones to the right. Natural gas usually has no odor and you can't see it.

Before it is sent to the pipelines and storage tanks, it is mixed with a chemical that gives a strong odor. The odor smells almost like rotten eggs. The odor makes it easy to smell if there is a leak. From the storage tanks natural gas is sent through underground pipes to your home to cook your food and heat your house. Natural gas is also sent to factories and to power plants to make electricity. In the long-term, the development of the energy supply system should be directed towards a maximum replacement of fossil fuels by other renewable energy sources.

It will however certainly take several decades to transform the present systems for the generation of electricity, heat and power. In the intermediate period fossil fuels will supply most of the energy needed in society. For environmental reasons it is necessary that the energy conversion from these fossil sources is both efficient and clean. This is the starting point for research and development in the field of fossil fuels (natural gas and coal) and for studying the environmental aspects of the use of these fuels.

The research ranges from the development of new materials for energy conversion plants to studies of fossil fuel based energy systems. The United States uses about 17 million barrels of oil every day. Petroleum accounts for nearly 40 % of our country's energy. Coal is used to produce almost 60 % of our nations electrical power, and accounts for 22 % of our overall energy consumption. Natural gas, a third form of fossil fuel, accounts for roughly 23 % of The United States energy usage.

It takes the equivalent of 7 gallons of gasoline per day for every man woman and child to keep this country running at its current pace. The U. S. is home to 5 % of the worl...


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Research essay sample on Carbon Dioxide Emissions Renewable Energy Sources

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