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Maltreatment of children is not a new phenomenon. It dates back far into history, as far as the colonial times and even back to biblical times. During the recent years child maltreatment has had an increase in the publics eye. There are many factors to child maltreatment. There are four general categories of child maltreatment now recognized.
They are physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect and emotional maltreatment. Each category, in turn, covers a range of behavior. The maltreatment of children not only affects the children themselves, but also affects the family intern making it dysfunctional. Physical abuse may be best defined as any non-accidental physical injury by a person who has care, custody, or control of a child.
The definition contains two key aspects, the act is intentional or willful, and / or the act resulted in physical injury. Accidental does not qualify as child abuse. Physical abused children do not fit any type of stereotype. Abuse occurs in all neighborhoods. Also, abusers come in all shapes, sizes, colors, and sexes.
There are many signs of physical abuse. First the location and types of injuries, many time the parent or care takers will deny any wrong doing or the child has suffered any physical injury. There are always those injuries that consist of a normal childhood upbringing, such as falling of their bike or bumping their head. Then, there are those which they cannot be explained. When caretakers deny any injuries or have no knowledge of an injury, there is a very strong likely hood that physical abuse exists. Here are some of the signs of physical abuse.
Bruises happen for various of accidental reasons. There are also bruises that are tell tale signs of abuse. Bruises have a time clock that can tell when it happened. Also, the location of the bruise can tell a story. Bruises on the front part of the body are often signs of normal bruises from just falling ECT. Bruises found on the back of the arm, leg, lower back, the butt and genital are suspicious bruises and often questioned bruises.
Patterned bruising is also a sign of abuse. Normal bruises are in various shapes and sizes. While some bruises that are a patterned show strong signs of abuse. These are bruises that have definite boundaries and sharp and curved edges. For example rope, rulers, hand prints and so on. (wallace, 38) Burns are also a sign of abuse. Burns are patterned like bruises.
These burns would have sharp edges and spots that were spared from fixation. Water immersion burns are common signs of child abuse usually caused by a caretaker holding the child in the water. Also patterned burns which are burns caused by pressing hot objects on the child bodies. (wallace, 42) Another sign of abuse is fractures. These types of fractures are signs of abuse.
Spiral fractures are usually breaks in the humerus or femur resulting from twisting of the limb. Head and internal injuries are often signs of abuse. Such as occasion, whiplash or shaken baby syndrome are examples of head injuries. Chest and abdominal injuries are common in abuse. This is caused by hitting or Sexual abuse is defined as the sexual exploitation or sexual activities of children. A child under these circumstances will indicate that the child's health or welfare is harmed or threatened.
Intra familial sexual abuse includes incest and refers any type of exploitative sexual contact between relatives. There are many physical indicators of sexual abuse. Here are some examples of physical indicators: difficulty in walking or sitting, torn, stained or bloody underwear, bleeding, bruising and itching around the genitals and anal. Frequent urinary tract or yeast infections.
Pain on urination and so on. There are no pattern or causes of conduct that leads to sexual abusers. (wallace, 58 and The definition of child neglect is the treatment or maltreatment of a child by a parent or caretaker under circumstances indicating harm or threatened harm to the child's health or welfare. There are many theories of child neglect from poverty to non-fit parents. There are also many indications to child Some of the physical indicators are poor growth, constant hunger and malnutrition.
Poor body odor and hygiene, lice and inappropriate clothing. Constant fatigue. Constant lack of supervision and unexplained bruises or injuries as result of poor supervision. Unattended physical problems or medical needs, such as lack of proper immunizations, gross dental problems, need glasses Emotional neglect is the constant act or omission which is judged by the community standers and professional expertise to be psychologically damaging to the child.
Rejecting the child is one form of child neglect. This is when caretakers refuse to acknowledge the children's worth or emotional need. For example, a parent treats the child differently than his or her other siblings. Isolating a child is when a caretaker does not allow the child to interact with others. An example of this is when a child caretaker does not let them out of the house or even out of their room. Another type of emotional abuse is terrorizing the child, in which the caretaker establishes extreme fear and Corrupting the child is another form of emotional abuse.
This when the care takers engage in anti social behavior with the child. Denying the child emotional responses, also the caretaker fails to provide emotional resources necessary for the child's health psychological Bibliography:
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