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Free research essays on topics related to: first crusade

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  • The Tower Of London - 1,596 words
    The Tower of London has been many things over the years such as a fortress, a state prison, a zoo, an armory, repository for the crown jewels, a home for Tudor monarchs, and today a museum. Inside the tower walls has been the last sight for many of its prisoners. Although there were some prisoners that have escaped the tower walls and fled to neighboring countries. William the Conqueror invaded England in 1066 defeating Harold II. Duke William of Normandy built on to the existing castle in 1078. He then ordered the construction of what is now called the White Tower. It is said to have been completed in 1097. It is called the White tower ever since Henry VIII had it whitewashed. The Tower is ...
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  • Christianity In The Middle Ages - 1,113 words
    Christianity played a major role throughout the Middle Ages in society and politics. The Middle Ages, classified from 600 AD to 1350 AD, was significantly effected by Christianity because of the impact it had on the daily lives of people of the time. The beginning of the Early Middle Ages, after the Fall of Rome in 476 AD and the period known as the Dark Ages, the reorganization of the empire brought a desire for faith and religion, primarily Christianity. This trend of Christian importance was apparent until 1350, when the Black Death caused the end of a systematized era. The church is often viewed, during this period of time, as a center of corruption, greed, and evil, with materialistic p ...
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  • Tracing Chivalry Through Knighthood - 1,897 words
    Throughout my semester of studies on knighthood, I have noticed two major swings in its goal. At first the knight existed only as a vassal, a mounted warrior for fighting. Then as the first crusade came around in 1095 it turned the knights attentions to their new quest in Jerusalem. As many joined the ranks of such sects as the knights of the temple, their job became increasingly religious and their status became one of the church. The second transformation comes with the appearance of court life. As the knights became more entangled in the ways of court life, the code of morals known as chivalry becomes more refined and available to fewer people. At the same time, with the appearance of the ...
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  • Crusades - 938 words
    After the death of Charlemagne, king of the Franks, in 814 and the following collapse of his empire, Christian Europe was under attack and on the defensive. The Magyars, nomadic people from Asia, ravaged eastern and central Europe until the 10th century. Around 800, several centuries of Viking raids disrupted life in northern Europe and even threatened Mediterranean cities. Nevertheless, the greatest threat came from the forces of Islam, very militant and victorious in the centuries following the death of their leader, Muhammad, in 632. By the eighth century Islamic forces had conquered North Africa, the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, and most of Spain. Islamic armies established bases ...
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  • Crusades - 1,943 words
    In the year of our lord 1095, Pope Urban II started what we know as the Holy Wars or the Crusades. Over the period from 1095-1464, a series of military expeditions were fought to take back the Holy Land, Jerusalem, from the Seldjuk Turks. There were eight crusades which were spurred for many different reasons by many different people that left a lasting effect to the world. These years of bloodshed were led by men of power to bring money, greed, and fame to themselves at the expense of others. Although it brought a lasting uneasiness between the two religions, but trade with the East increased and feudalism became scarce. The crusaders failed to regain the Holy Land, but the Eastern connecti ...
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  • King Baldwin I Of Jerusalem - 1,339 words
    Baldwin of Boulogne I, brother to Godfrey of Boullion, Count of Edessa and King of Jerusalem. Baldwin was one of the eight chief lay leaders of the first Crusade (Setton 21). He died in 1118, which marked an end of an era. Baldwin was the last of the original leaders of the firs Crusade (Setton 408). He founded the first Latin state in the east, the county of Edessa. He founded and transformed Jerusalem into a monarchy state. Helped in the capture of Tripoli. Established the county of Tripoli into the fourth and last state of the east. With only small means at his disposal he accomplished many things, like founding the county Edessa with a few knights. Then he took over Jerusalem after his b ...
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  • The Speech Of Pope Urban Ii According To Robert Of Rheims - 539 words
    Urbans concept of crusading is defined, according to Robert of Rheims, as getting revenge on those who have killed and sinned. We learn that the themes used to incite war-fever were those that were against the Christian faith and violence, as seen in The First Crusade-Chapter I Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, November 27th 1095 #2. The attitude toward Non- Christians was negative, as we learn later. The Pope mentions plenty of incentives to incite this war-fever. There were plenty of themes used to incite war-fever among the Christians. The Persians came to Jerusalem and killed millions of Christians, as the Pope states. The Persians captured the Christians and tortured them severe ...
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  • The Effect Of One Tribe On An Entire Nation - 811 words
    The Roman Catholic Church is a foundation of medieval European culture. However, certain people also had influential effects. These included Pope Urban II, Walter the Penniless, and Peter the Hermit. Everyone in Europe belonged to the Roman Catholic Church except Arabs, Jews, and the people of the Byzantine Empire. The position of Pope had great responsibility. The Pope had more power and wealth than any king or noble. However, most of the power of the church came from the excommunication. Anyone who had committed an offense against the church was expelled from it. Also, Christians were forbidden contact with anyone excommunicated, even if they were family. One show of the vast power held by ...
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  • Hattin: Trapping A Victory - 1,341 words
    ... Joshua Prower offers an excellent construction of the formation of the crusader army and its problems on the march: The mounted knights were preceded and probably flanked also by archers and crossbowmen, as well as by units of Turcoples, mounted archers who fought like the Saljuq or Turkish contingents. The heavy cavalry were the weakest point of the army when faced with Muslim troops far more mobile than their own. The enemys mounted archers could shoot from well outside the range of Crusader spears and lances and thus avoid a frontal encounter with the Frankish cavalry. Once a Frankish horse was hit, the Crusader was at the mercy of the Muslim bowmen. Against their dense rain of arrows ...
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  • Fall Of Constantinople - 772 words
    By 350 A.D., Constantinople was one of the worlds greatest capitals. The city was located between Asia and Europe, making it a very diverse and strategic place. The many bodies of water surrounding the peninsula gave Constantinople many trade routes as well as protection. The famous walls were also built to further strengthen security. Constantinople eventually rose to a beautiful city of strength and wealth. Its Greek heritage separated itself from the West with their religion of Eastern Orthodoxy. Despite the power of Constantinople, unending attacks and problems would eventually weaken the city. The first major catastrophe took place in 542, when a plague struck and killed massive amounts ...
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  • The Military Expeditions Of The Crusades - 1,511 words
    Crusades were military expeditions planned and carried out by western European Christians. The crusades began around 1095. In order to takeover and gain control of the Holy Land from the Muslims. The Holy Land was located in Jerusalem and the Christians believed that gaining control of it was their destiny. The origin of the crusades was a result of the expanding the area in the middle east for the Turks. The Turkish people forcfully invaded Byzantium, a Christian empire. The crusaders were a military, sent out to recover what they thought was their land. The first crusades actually started by the Pope. In November of 1095, the Pope gathered his followers outside a French city. He preached t ...
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  • Biography Of Clara Barton - 393 words
    Clara Barton was born in North Oxford, Massachusetts on December 25, 1821 to Stephen and Sarah Barton. As a result of Clara growing up as the youngest child, she was timid and withdrawn. Throughout her life she would always seek acceptance and confirmation of her worth. When Clara was three she began her schooling. Early on, teachers were impressed with this quiet girls advanced reading abilities, and soon were also pleased with her accomplishments in writing, arithmetic, and geography. In all her years in school, Clara excelled in the classroom and received much attention and praise as a scholar. While most girls her age were discouraged from active intellectual pursuits, her liberal and un ...
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  • Failure Of The Crusader States - 1,078 words
    Within the course of that paper, I will explore one of the most interesting religious and military phenomena of the worlds history the Crusades, or Holy Wars. The common knowledge about the Crusades and Crusaders mostly is presented from the Christian point of view, where the Arabic world is viewed as evil and wrong, and the Crusaders are shown as the noble knights fighting for the just cause. However, the interpretation of the Crusades certainly depends on a lot of factors, and the representatives of the Arabic world definitely had different opinions about the Crusades than Europeans did. The goal of that paper is to find five the most important reasons for failure of the Crusader states, a ...
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