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Multiregionalism Vs Out Of Africa - 1,033 words
Anthropologists today are debating two sides to the story of the evolution of the modern human Homosapian sapian. The sides agree on two different theories called the Out of Africa theory and the Multiregional (or Candelabra) theory. The debate, which some may call a slanderous argument, is far from being resolved on either side. Both evolutionist sides have strong evidence, however, this evidence does have its flaws and is not accurate enough to prove one side over another. However, the arguments for the Out of Africa theory seem to be flawed far more than those of the Multiregional theory. The Multiregional theory states that the hominid H. erectus. Migrated out of Africa through the north ...
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Ebola - 1,240 words
... freshly collected. A technique used to duplicate genetic material for study, called the polymerase chain reaction, is used to detect Ebola viral material in patient blood or tissues. When infection by the virus is suspected, local health officials institute strict barrier nursing procedures (such as the use of gowns, gloves, and masks) and usually call on experts from the World Health Organization (WHO), the Centers for Diseas The Ebola virus has been classified by the CDC as Biosafety Level 4, which requires the greatest safety precautions. To ensure maximum safety, virologists must work in special protective clothing, and their laboratories contain equipment that sterilizes air, and li ...
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Three Historical Figures - 355 words
Biographical Sketch of James Dewey Watson James D. Watson is best known for his discovery of the structure of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), for which he shared with Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. They proposed that the DNA molecule takes the shape of a double helix, an elegantly simple structure that resembles a gently twisted ladder. The rails of the ladder are made of alternating units of phosphate and the sugar deoxyribose; the rungs are each composed of a pair of nitrogen-containing nucleotides. Salk, Jonas (Edward) 1914 -- 1995 Immunologist; born in New York City. He began his pathbreaking studies on viruses and immunization by starting ...
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Ali Khan - 2,515 words
... passes. Enchanted by this spell, many evolutionist scientists go on searching for scientific confirmation of 19th centurys irrational and outdated evolutionist claims that have long since been refuted by scientific evidence. There are also additional mechanisms that force scientists to be evolutionist and materialist. In Western countries, a scientist has to observe some standards in order to be promoted, to receive academic recognition, or to have his articles published in scientific journals. A straightforward acceptance of evolution is the number-one criterion. This system drives these scientists so far as to spend their whole lives and scientific careers for the sake of a dogmatic be ...
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Movies - 1,108 words
In The Double Helix, a reader can find James D. Watson's first hand accounts of the competitive race in science that led to the discovery of the structure of the DNA molecule. The DNA research Watson and his colleagues took part in demanded knowledge in many areas of expertise, but the most important area was that of X-ray analysis. By creating photographic two dimensional pictures of the three dimensional DNA molecule, Watson and his team were able to analyze these pictures and determine that DNA is actually shaped as a double helix structure. This discovery proved to be a true scientific breakthrough, ultimately winning Watson a nobel prize in 1962. The title "The Double Helix" refers to t ...
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Dna - 993 words
Deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid are two chemical substances involved in transmitting genetic information from parent to offspring. It was known early into the 20th century that chromosomes, the genetic material of cells, contained DNA. In 1944, Oswald T. Avery, Colin M. MacLeod, and Maclyn McCarty concluded that DNA was the basic genetic component of chromosomes. Later, RNA would be proven to regulate protein synthesis. DNA is the genetic material found in most viruses and in all cellular organisms. Some viruses do not have DNA, but contain RNA instead. Depending on the organism, most DNA is found within a single chromosome like bacteria, or in several chromosomes like most other ...
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Biology Molecule - 1,969 words
-man is high 50's to 60% water -distribution in body divided into 3 compartments: 2) intercellular/interstitial fluid - 11 litres - 80% -water's properties result from its structure and molecular interactions -polar covalent bonds and asymmetrical shape give it opposite charges on -electrons spend more time around O giving H a slight positive charge -hydrogen bonds form between the oxygen of one molecule and the -cohesion: substance being held together by hydrogen bonds -hydrogen bonds are transient yet enough is always held together to give water more structure than almost any other liquid -beads and meniscus formed by cohesion (also helps upward transport of -adhesion counteracts downward ...
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Bio Outline - 1,776 words
... E PHOTO REVIEW HANDOUT W/ EXPLANATION BELOW 6. Non-Cyclic electron Photophosphorylation (Figure13-34 = Z Scheme with electron volt ratings) (1) Mn -center - Water Oxidizing Enzyme (3) Plastoquinone e- carrier aromatic ring w/ long chair hydrocarbon not attached to PS II (4) Cytochrome b6 - e- carrier Heme (Fe) containing protein Fe2+ Fe 3+ (b) Sets up H+ gradient between Stroma and Thylakoid lumen (c) H+ pumped from stroma into lumen (d) Flow out through CF0CF1 ATPase imbedded in thylakoid lumen. (7) PC = e- carrier - plastocyanin (a) Cu containing protein: Cu+ Cu2+ (9) Ferrodoxin - Fe/S center mobile - not attached to PS I (10) NADP+ Reductase use electrons to reduce NADP+ to NADP ...
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Molecular Biotechnology In Our Life - 1,152 words
If you have had a can of soft drink, ate a fruit, or took some head ache medicine this morning - then it's very likely you have used a genetically enhanced product. Genetics is a part of biotechnology that manipulates biological organisms to make products that benefit humankind. Biotechnology is essential in our life, but there are some concerns regarding its safety. Although, biotechnology may pose some danger it is proving to be very beneficial to humankind. The first applications of biotechnology occurred approximately around 5000 BC. Back then people used simple breeding methods. Chains of plants or animals were crossed to produce greater genetic variety. The hybridized offspring then we ...
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Proteins - 979 words
Proteins are the macromolecules of life. Discovered in 1838, proteins are recognized as a large number of superior organic compounds that make up living organisms and are essential to their functioning. The term protein comes from the Greek word proteies or primary. Proteins have many different properties and function in a variety of ways. They can function as a building material, in teeth, bones and muscles, and they can serve as enzymes, hormones, and neurotransmitters. Its functions are the most diverse of any family. Whether found in humans, animals, plants or in single-celled bacteria, proteins are made of units of 20 different amino acids. Proteins consist of macromolecules called poly ...
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Extracting Dna From The Bacterium Escherichia Coli - 1,133 words
Introduction Deoxyribonucleic acid is contained in all cells. The structure of DNA makes gene transmission possible. Since genes are segments of DNA, DNA must be able to make exact copies of itself to enable the next generation of cells to receive the same genes. The DNA molecule looks like a twisted ladder. Each "side" is a chain of alternating phosphate and deoxyribose sugar molecules. The "steps" are formed by bonded pairs of purine-pyrimidine bases. DNA contains four such bases the purines adenine (A) and guanine (G) and the pyrimidines cytosine (c) and thymine (T). The RNA molecule, markedly similar to DNA, usually consists of a single chain. The RNA chain contains ribose sugars instead ...
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Task: Do The Advantages Outweigh The Disadvantages Of Genetic Engineering With Specific Reference To - 1,454 words
GENERAL STUDIES Task: Do the advantages outweigh the disadvantages of genetic engineering with specific reference to Gattaca? Gattaca, a film, takes place in the near future, in a time when genetic engineering technology is used is used to create a perfect society. Gatttacas main character, Vincent, is genetically inferior; he was conceived by natural birth, rather than genetically engineered, which means that throughout his life is guaranteed discrimination. Vincent has dreams of becoming a scientist at Gattaca, but being of natural birth, he has almost no chance of ever working there. During the later stages of the 20th century, man harnessed the power of the atom, and not after, soon real ...
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Abnormal Cell Growth Leading To Cancer - 1,599 words
Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. Half of all men and one-third of all women in the U.S. will develop cancer during their lifetimes. Although it is common knowledge that cancer is generally inherited, this paper will further explore the causes and what happens on a cellular level when cancer develops in the human body. Basics of signal transduction Cell communication, or signal transduction, is simply the means by which cells in the body respond to signals coming from outside those cells. The purpose of this chemical communication is to coordinate functions inside the cell, between cells or between organs in the body, allowing us the means to respond to our ex ...
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History Of The Human Genome Project - 1,312 words
The Human Genome Project (HGP) is an international research effort to decipher the entire human genome and understand the unique hereditary instructions that each person possesses. The HGP is a jointly funded project by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) with additional research done by the National (NHGRI). The project, launched in 1990, was originally planned to last 15 years, but rapid advances in technology have accelerated the expected completion date to 2003. The Joint Genome Institute (JGI), established in 1997, is one of the largest publicly funded human genome sequencing centers in the world and contributes greatly to the HGP. The Wellcom ...
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