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Some have called him the best president yet. Others have even claimed that he was the world's most influential and successful leader of the twentieth century. Those claims can be backed up by the overwhelming support that he received from his citizens throughout his four terms in office. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt began a new era in American history by ending the Great Depression that the country had fallen into in 1929. His social reforms gave people a new perspective on government.
Government was not only expected to protect the people from foreign invaders, but to protect against poverty and joblessness. Roosevelt had shown his military and diplomatic skill as the Commander in Chief during World War II. This wartime leadership and international relations policy won him an award in the hearts of many Americans. Roosevelt threw his hat in the ring in 1931 in order to prepare for the election of 1932. Democratic Party chairman James A Farley directed his campaign.
started a nationwide radio address, outlining a program to meet the economic problems of the nation. He coined the term "forgotten man" to mean all of those who had been hard hit by the evils of the depression. These radio addresses were the start to what he called the "fireside chats." Overall, Roosevelt was the most energetic and dynamic candidate, and he was nominated by the party on the fourth ballot. Although he displayed excellent characteristics, his competition was fairly tough.
He was up against John Nance Garner of Texas (who would be his Vice Presidential running mate); D. Baker of Ohio, who was former Secretary of War; and former Governor Alfred E. Smith of New York. For three ballots, Roosevelt held a large lead, but lacked the two- thirds margin necessary for victory. Farley then promised John Garner the vice presidential nomination, which he accepted grudgingly. Then FDR took the presidential One of the purposes of the national convention is to bring the party together in a movement of support behind the nominated candidate.
Although there was rough competition during the choosing process, most party leaders were happy with the Roosevelt choice. It would help pull votes from the urban-Eastern region of the country. Also, Roosevelt made a dashing introduction at the Chicago convention by being the first nominee to ever write an acceptance speech. In this speech, he brought emotions from the audience in his last line, "I pledge to you, I pledge to myself, to a new deal for the During the November campaign against Hoover, Roosevelt suggested a few parts of the so called "New Deal." He spoke of relief and public works money. He wanted to develop a plan to cut agricultural overproduction. He was for public power, and unemployment insurance.
The repeal of prohibition and stock exchange regulation were also big items on his platform. However, other than the aforementioned items, Roosevelt was quite vague about other plans. He mentioned little about his plans for industrial recovery or labor laws. As much foreign policy experience as he had, he talked very little of it during the campaign. Many believe that he was simply trying to home in on the problems that the American public saw most prominent at the time.
When it came to election day, Roosevelt was the only viable alternative to Hoover, who many blamed for the Great Depression, although critics argue that it was the presidents preceding the Hoover Administration. The outcome reflected this thinking: Roosevelt won 22, 821, 857 votes compared to Hoover's 15, 761, 841. also won the electoral 472 to 59. The voters had sent large majorities of Democrats to both houses as well, which would enable Roosevelt to accomplish more by pushing Roosevelt's second election was in 1936. The Democratic National Convention re-nominated him by acclamation -- no vote was even taken. Vice President Garner was also nominated.
The Republican opponents were Governor Alfred M. Landon of and Frank Knox, a newspaper publisher. Republicans, seeing Roosevelt's overwhelming popularity, were reaching for a tomato to throw. They claimed that he had not kept his promise to the people to balance the budget. Roosevelt replied by pointing to the of fighting the depression and returning the nation to prosperity to precedence over the As expected, Roosevelt won by a landslide. He received 27, 751, 491 popular votes and carried 46 states with 523 electoral votes.
His opponent only received 16, 679, 491 popular votes and 2 states with 8 electoral's. This reflected the nation's confidence in the man and his leadership ability. However, the nation still had a long way to go. He stated in his inauguration address, "I see one-third of a nation ill-housed, After another over-all successful term, Roosevelt ran again in 1940. The Democratic Party broke precedent with his re-nomination. There were some party members that felt it was unfair to elect him again, so his margins of popularity fell slightly.
This time, he was not the only one up for the nomination. There was James Farley, who received 72 13 / 30 votes, previous Vice President John Nance Garner, receiving 61 votes; Millard Things of Maryland, receiving 9 1 / 2 votes; and Cordell Hull, former Secretary of State, who received only 5 2 / 3 votes. Secretary of Agriculture A. Wallace was chosen as a Vice Presidential running mate. The Republicans nominated Wendell Wilkie of Indiana, a corporation president, to oppose the Roosevelt/Wallace team. The two candidates had some similar views.
Wilkie supported Roosevelt's policy and favored many New Deal programs already in effect. However, Wilkie opposed the controls that the Democratic Administration had put on business. To obtain more Republican support for this campaign, Roosevelt used his executive power of appointment to appoint two republicans to his Cabinet in 1940. The first was Henry L.
Stimson for Secretary of War, who held the office under the Taft Administration. He also held the office of Secretary of State under President Hoover. Stimson replaced Harry Woodring who was regarded as isolationist. Roosevelt's opponent who ran for as Vice President on the republican side, newspaper publisher Frank Knox, was placed as the Secretary of the Navy. The Republicans based their campaign on the tradition that no President had ever gone for a third term in succession. To counter this, Roosevelt put the spotlight on his administration's achievements.
Because of the risky situation abroad, many felt that Roosevelt's expertise was needed if war occurred. The election results were closer this time than the previous two times. Roosevelt received 27, 243, 466 popular votes and 449 electoral votes. Wilkie received popular votes and 82 electoral votes.
When it was time for Roosevelt's third term to end, he initially said he wanted to retire. However, he later declared that he felt it was his duty to serve if his country called on him. Much of this feeling was based on the idea that it would be a bad thing for the country to change leadership in the middle of the war. Many of the president's advisors felt he would not live through a fourth term, considering his heart disease, hypertension, and other cardiac problems.
Because of his condition, the Vice President nomination for the 1944 election was of utmost importance. Roosevelt was persuaded to drop Henry Wallace, whom many regarded as too liberal and emotionally unsuited to be president. Harry Truman of Missouri was chosen to fill the spot. Although Roosevelt received nomination on the first ballot, there were two other candidates: Harry Byrd (89 votes) and James Farley -- again -- (1 vote). The Republicans nominated Thomas Dewey of New York for President and John Bricker of Ohio for Vice President.
Again, their argument was term length. No President should serve for 16 years, they declared. The opposing argument by the Democrats was that no country should "change horses in mid-stream." Roosevelt drove around the streets of New York City in a rainstorm and then made a speech to show that The election outcome was even slimmer this time, but Roosevelt still captured a hearty vote. Roosevelt received 25, 602, 505 votes and 432 electoral votes and his Republican opponent received 22, 013, 372 popular votes and 99 electoral votes. Many of the advisers who helped Roosevelt during his presidential campaigns continued to aid him after he entered the White House.
Below are the four cabinets: POSITION NAME/ STATE DATE OF Secretary of State: Cordell Hull, TN 3 / 4 / 33 Secretary of Treasury: William Hartman Woodring, NY 3 / 4 / 33 Henry Morganthau, Jr. , NY 1 / 1 / 34 Secretary of War: George Henry Dern, UT 3 / 4 / 33 Harry Woodring, KA 9 / 25 / 36 - 5 / 6 / 37 Attorney General: Homer Stille Cummings, CN 3 / 4 / 33 Postmaster General: James A. Farley, NY 3 / 4 / 33 Secretary of the Navy: Claude A. Swanson, VA 3 / 4 / 33 Secretary of Interior: Harold Ickes, IL 3 / 4 / 33 Secretary of Agriculture Henry A. Wallace, IW 3 / 4 / 33 Secretary of Commerce: Daniel Calhoun Roper, SC 3 / 4 / 33 Secretary of Labor: Frances Perkins, NY 3 / 4 / 33 first female to be appointed to the Cabinet previously the leader of the Chicago NAACP POSITION NAME/STATE DATE OF Secretary of State Cordell Hull, TN from previous an.
Secretary of Treasury: Henry Morganthau, Jr. , NY from previous an. Secretary of War: Harry Woodring from previous- 5 / 6 / 37 Henry L. Stimson, NY 7 / 10 / 40 Attorney General: Homer Stille Cummings, CN from Robert Houghwout Jackson, NY 1 / 18 / 40 Postmaster General: James A. Farley, NY from previous- 9 / 1 / 40 Frank C.
Walker, PA 9 / 10 / 40 Secretary of Navy: Claude Swanson, VA from previous- 7 / 7 / 39 Charles Edison, NJ 8 / 5 / 39 - 1 / 12 / 40 Frank Knox, IL 7 / 10 / 40 Secretary of the Interior: Harold Ickes, IL from previous Secretary of Agriculture: Henry A. Wallace, IW from previous Claude Raymond Wickard, IN 8 / 27 / 40 Secretary of Commerce: Daniel C. Roper, SC from previous Harry Hopkins, NY 12 / 24 / 38 Jesse Jones, TX 9 / 16 / 40 Secretary of Labor: Francis Perkins, NY from previous POSITION NAME/STATE DATE OF Secretary of State: Cordell Hull, TN from previous Edward Stettinius, VA 11 / 30 / 44 Secretary of Treasury: Henry Morganthau, Jr. , NY from previous Secretary of War: Henry L. Stimson, NY from previous Attorney General: Robert Jackson, NY from previous Francis Biddle, PA 9 / 5 / 41 Postmaster General: Frank Walker, PA from previous Secretary of the Navy: Frank Knox, IL from previous- 4 / 28 / 44 James Vincent Forrestal, NY 6 / 18 / 44 Secretary of the Interior: Harold Ickes, IL from previous Secretary of Agriculture: Claude Wickard, IN from previous Secretary of Commerce: Jesse Jones, TX from previous Secretary of Labor: Francis Perkins, NY from previous POSITION NAME/STATE DATE OF Secretary of State: Edward Stettinius, VA from previous Secretary of Treasury: Henry Morganthau, Jr.
NY from previous Secretary of War: Henry Stimson, NY from previous Attorney General: Francis Biddle, PA from previous Postmaster General: Frank Walker, PA from previous Secretary of the Navy: James Forrestal, NY from previous Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes, IL from previous Secretary of Agriculture: Claude Wickard, IN from previous Secretary of Commerce: Jesse Jones, TX from previous Henry Wallace 3 / 1 / 45 Secretary of Labor: Frances Perkins, NY from previous By the time Roosevelt was inaugurated on March 4, 1933, the economic situation was desperate. Between 13 and 15 million Americans were unemployed. Of these, between 1 and 2 million people were wandering about the country looking for jobs. Thousands lived in cardboard shacks called "hooverville's." Even more were standing in bread lines hoping to get a few crumbs for their family.
Panic-stricken people hoping to rescue their deposits had forced 38 states to close their banks. The Depression hit all levels of the social scale -- heads of corporations and Wall Street bankers were left on street begging -- "brother, can you spare a dime?" became the catch phrase of the era. Roosevelt's action would be two parted: restore confidence and rebuild the economic and social structure. In one of his addresses, he pushed confidence with his statement, "the only thing we have to fear, is fear itself." It is here where he would push his presidential powers farther than almost any other president in history during peacetime.
He made the bold request to Congress to allow him "broad executive power to wage a war against the emergency, as great as the power that would be given to me if One of his first steps was to take action upon the bank problem. Because of the Depression, there were "runs" to the bank that people were making to pull their deposits out in return for paper cash and gold. Many banks were not fit to handle this rush. Roosevelt declared a "bank holiday" that began on March 6, 1933 and lasted for four days. All banks in the nation were closed until the Department of Treasury could examine each one's fiscal situation. Those that were determined...
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