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Example research essay topic: East And West Red Sea - 2,476 words

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Hatshepsut was the first female ruler who ever ruled in all the history of the world. She was the most remarkable women that influenced history as a whole as well as Egypt itself. She was the first female pharaoh who ever ruled Egypt. Hatshepsut came to be by her parents Tuthmose I and Aahmes. She had two brothers who died prematurely and she was the favorite child. Unfortunately her two brothers both died.

Since she was the only child left, she would become heir to the throne when her father dies. Hatshepsut's family tree made it easier to understand and it is a bit complex. It starts with Hatshepsut's parents parents. Senseneb was married to Amenhotep I and had Tuthmose I, but Amenhotep I, also had a child with Aahotpou II and they had Aahmes, who Tuthmose I married.

Tuthmose I and Aahmes had three children. They had two sons named Ouazmosou and Amenmosou who both died prematurely. Their third child was none other than Hatshepsut. Her father, Tuthmose I had a son with a commoner named Moutnofrit, their son was named Tuthmose II.

Hatshepsut and her half-brother Tuthmose II were married. There is more to this family tree that I will discuss later. When Hatshepsut's father died they became the new rulers of Egypt. Tuthmose I died in 1512 and it became Tuthmose II and Hatshepsut's turn to rule. Tuthmose II was the one who was to gain the throne, but it was said that for the few years of his reign, Hatshepsut was doing most of the decision making.

Hatshepsut had a child but it was very likely that it was her lovers, Senmut. But also Tuthmose II had a son with a commoner whose name was Isis. Their son was named Tuthmose III. Tuthmose II was pharaoh for only three or four years.

Archeologists found some markings on the surface of his mummy that indicate that he had died of skin disease. His son with Isis, Tuthmose III, was too young so Hatshepsut was the person chosen to rule since Tuthmose III worshipped as a priest of the god Amon. My opinion is that the only reason she was able to become queen was because she was just serving as his regent. That is what most people wanted because this was the last thing that they would have to deal with, a female queen or king. But she was not at a person to just sit there and wait for the young Tuthmose III to be old enough to become king. (web page: ) She was his regent for a short period of time, but around 1503 she demanded herself to become crowned pharaoh. She took s royal name that is only to be used by kings.

She used the full pharaonic regalia, even the fake beard and all, these things are only to be used by pharaohs. A major part of her successful reign was her loyal and influential officials, they had control over the most important parts of her government. (web page: ) A man named Edouard Neville believed he deciphered Hatshepsut's whole name. He said it consisted of four parts. The first one was standard name, she who is rich, powerful through heroes, her doubles.

The second, next, is the pharaohs rule over both East and West. Her third name was her Horus name, Horus names are the names that only pharaohs can have. Hers reads as The divine one in her risings. And her last name uses two cartouches, Kamara which means the true double of Ra. And Hatshepsut. (web page: HATCART. HTML) The name that was written on her seal was the Horus, mighty by his Kas, the lord of East and West abounding in years, the good goddess, the pious lady, the golden falcon, divine in her rings, the king of Upper and Lower Egypt, Kamara, the daughter of Ra, Khnumit Amon, Hatshepsut. (web page: ) Before Hatshepsut became pharaoh she was always a female, but as she was crowned she transformed into the appearance of a man.

She wore the same outfit as the former pharaohs. Even in her great seal she was referred to as a man, various information states the reason for this is either the artists or scribes were wrong, it was too hard in Egyptian written language or Egyptians could not have a female being a pharaoh, so Hatshepsut was referred to as male and female. (web page: HATSHEPSUT. HTML, encyclopedia) Hatshepsut was very productive as queen. But because she was not a male, but female ruler there were problems she had to face. Most of the revolts Hatshepsut faced were because of her nephew, Tuthmose III.

He was getting older and realized what was going on and he was not happy about the whole situation at all. Everything that was in Queen Hatshepsut's way she solved the problem by using a smart and effective way. She spoke what she was trying to get across in such a way that other people would want to accept them, so by this her ideas spread with them. (encyclopedia, web page: hatshepsut. html) She was very involved in the political life of Egypt and had good skills in it. She gave her people confidence by, as I mentioned before, becoming a male ruler.

She wore everything the pharaohs wore and everything of her was in the form of a man. While she ruled there were no wars but she sent vast amounts of expeditions, and built great temples. The temples that she ordered to be built were wonderful accomplishments of the Egyptians skills in the area of architecture. (Walter) The massive obelisks that Queen Hatshepsut had built were the largest of their time. Senmut was again the architect behind these jobs. Queen Hatshepsut had two large obelisks made. They were made from red granite from Aswan.

The obelisks were over ninety-five feet long and weighed 700, 000 pounds. They took seven months to be carved by hundreds of men and then they had to move them. It is believed that great levers must have been used to trundle the enormous stone sledges. These sledges were hauled over rollers to the edge of the Nile.

There an embankment of sand had been built over a large boat. Once on this embankment the obelisk was lowered by removing the sand. Freed from the embankment, the craft carrying the obelisk floated downstream to its destination at Thebes on the western side of the Nile. Many smaller boats were probably used to guide the laden barges on their way. (Walter, web page: temple. html) The obelisks were put on shore by large rollers.

They made a ramp out of bricks, which the obelisk was moved along it. They rested the bottom of it in a hole with sand over a block. This caused the sand to move and the obelisk sank in place. At the very top of the massive stone, there had been placed a mixture of gold and silver that glistened in the sun. The title of the queen: that her name might remaining enduring... forever and ever (, ) Hatshepsut had a child supposedly with her lover Senmut, who was also the great architect behind the immense temple.

He was also a member of the board and he had many titles, so she made him a very prominent person. At that time another temple existed named the temple of Mentuhotep II. But Hatshepsut's temple was much bigger. (web page: temple. html) Senmut designed the temple with rows of columns along the side of the temple and cliff side. That reflected the vertical patterns displayed by the cliff backdrop. The temple was built within the mountainside.

Two ramps connected the three levels, and on either side of the lower incline were T-shaped papyrus pools. () There were sphinxes and the Myrrh trees from Punt. The sweet smell of these trees must of made the ground level of the temple smell gloriously wonderful. All the Sphinxes had the heads of Hatshepsut, and she is also represented by a lion in some of the temples relives. Although she has no specific enemies, she is represented clawing at adversaries and acp turing birds of evil with a claret. I believe that since Senmut was her lover and he was being well benefited he did a really outstanding soul felt job on Hatshepsut's temple. () The temple was like an empty book, and the walls were the pages. Since the temple took about twenty years to build, as things Hatshepsut did then were they written on the walls.

Some things that were one the walls were the story of how Hatshepsut was the daughter of Amon-Ra. Using propaganda this story is as follows: Amon took the form of the noble king Tuthmose and found the queen sleeping in her room. With the pleasant odorous that proceeded from him announced his presence she woke. He gave her his heart and showed himself in hid god like splendor.

When he approached the queen wept for joy at his strength and beauty and he gave her his love? ? (web page: hatshepsut. html) On the walls were also how she did a lot to take care and fix all the damage that the former ruling Hyksos invaders, the expeditions that she sent to Punt and the great obelisks at another temple called Karnak. () The main entrance of the temple, which Senmut designed, had a pylon gate of white limestone. The temple had a lot of ramps that ended at a lot of terraces that had large statues of Queen Hatshepsut. All the way at the top of the last ramp, there was an entrance that lead into a great colonnaded courtyard. Behind the door hidden almost in the dark was a secret statue. The statue was none other than Senmut.

Many people believed that this statue in the great, holy, and sacred temple of the Queen represents the power of the commoner who dared proclaim his deeds even in the sacred presents of the Queens temple. (Walter) In the center of the statues of Hatshepsut as a royal mortal being and as a pharaoh. In the temple there was a large doorway. This doorway extended on, but not just anyone could enter through here. For passing through here which had the statue of Amun. This place was the most sacred and holy place, only priests were able to pass through here. (web page: temple. html) Throughout the whole temple there were chapels for the gods: Hathor, goddess of the Nile; Anubis, god of the dead; and to Hatshepsut.

Most of what was printed on the walls of the great temple were of the great voyages to Punt. (encyclopedia) The extensive amount of expeditions that Queen Hatshepsut sent out went to a place named Punt, at the Coast of Africa at the southernmost end of the Red Sea, which today it is know as Somalia. The expeditions brought back great quantities and amounts of Gold, ebony, animal skins, animals such as baboons, processed myrrh, myrrh trees, and spices. Myrrh is a sticky sweet smelling substance, that the Egyptians used it for perfumes. Queen Hatshepsut received tribute from lands such as Asia, Nubia, and Lydia. () All of the products of and from all the trading and the tribute they received were mainly for the God Amon-Re.

Queen Hatshepsut started building the great temple in Amon-Res honor. ( Hatshepsut sent a total number of five ships down the Red Sea to Punt. The reason for this was simply to trade the produce of Egypt for that of Africa. The Africans that greeted the Egyptians were pleased and happy to meet these new commoners. The Egyptian captain gave a banquet which they ate wine, bread, meat, beer, fruit, and all the good things of Egypt. (Walter) The Egyptians exchanged metal tools and weapons and beads. The people of Punt exchanged with them also rare plants, costly wood, cosmetics, hunting dogs, slaves, incense, and leopard skins. After this voyage, sea trade with East Africa spread and grew wonderfully. (, encyclopedia) This was the start for sea trade and voyages that Hatshepsut came up with to better her Egypt.

Since then Egyptians extended possibilities and made their voyages longer. There is proof that suggests that Egyptian vessels reached the Aegeom, Crete, Asia Minor, and maybe even Spain, before 1000 B. C. And how far they traveled down the east coast of Africa or out into the Arabian Sea is still unknown. By the time that the New Kingdom came about, vessels were able to go almost anywhere. () Tuthmose III grew and his hatred towards Hatshepsut grew along with him as well. As he got older Hatshepsut's well being got smaller and smaller as for anyone she was close to. (web page: hatshepsut.

html) Senmut planned to be burred at Hatshepsut's temple, but she was going to be buried somewhere else in her secret tomb. The reason for this was because of her nephew, Tuthmose III who would stop at nothing to find her tomb and tamper with it or do something bad to it. Senmut was buried in his own tomb and shortly after his death his sarcophagus was destroyed. His mummy was never found. Along with Senmut, Hatshepsut's mummy was no where to be found and her tomb was destroyed as well. The only thing that has been found of hers was one canopy jar which contained her liver. (web page: hatshepsut.

html, temple. html) Once Hatshepsut died it is assumed that Tuthmose III had her name removed from things that she had built, even her temple at Deir-el-Bar. He also had her name changed to Tuthmose I, II, or III. He did just the same with Senmut's name. Know one knows for shore but Tuthmose III probably had Hatshepsut, Senmut, and their daughter Nofrure. (, ) This is a remarkable history of Hatshepsut. She is so important and I wander why I have never even heard her name until now.

I knew of Cleopatra but not the first female ruler in all of the world. A great production and more credit should be given to her and her name should be greatly known among everyone. Hatshepsut ruled the most powerful, advanced civilization in the world, successfully, for twenty-one years. There were still people that disliked the fact that their pharaoh was a woman, and hater her success, but no matter what anyone thinks, her success stands and will continue to remain forever. Cite Page 1. ) Walter A. Fairservis, Jr.

Egypt, Gift of the Nile card number: 63 - 16101 year: 1963 2. ) Web Page web 3. ) Web Page web 4. ) Web Page web 5. ) Encyclopedia Britannica 1990 Card#: 88 - 83263 book #: 0 - 85229 - 511 - 1

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Research essay sample on East And West Red Sea

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