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Example research essay topic: Carbon Monoxide Carbon Dioxide - 4,029 words

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The Exhaust Systems Exhaust Systems The exhaust system on a car is the most important device to keep our environment clean. Many exhaust emissions from the engine such as water, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide, are of little concern. Others, such as hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NO), and carbon monoxide (CO), can cause environmental and health problems if not controlled. Hydrocarbon emissions react with sunlight, which cause photochemical smog.

The exhaust system controls these the best possible way. These emissions leave the engine and travel down the exhaust ports and into the exhaust manifolds. Then the gases travel though the exhaust pipe, catalytic converter, and muffler. Then the filtered emissions leave though the resonator, if used, and the tailpipe. There are two types of exhaust systems.

The single exhaust system and the dual exhaust system. The single exhaust system (as shown in diagram below) consists of only one exhaust pipe. This system unlike the dual exhaust system contains two oxygen sensors. These oxygen sensors detect the amount of oxygen in the exhaust. A lean air-fuel mixture contains an excess amount of oxygen after combustion. A rich air-fuel mixture contains very little oxygen.

When the oxygen sensor detects this it creates a high amount of voltage which the electronic control unit (ECU) detects and compares it to the reference voltage and then creates a lean air-fuel mixture. The single exhaust system pipe, converter, and muffler are sized in proportion to the engine displacement. The duel exhaust system consists of two separate exhaust systems; each equipped with their own catalyst converter and muffler. Duel exhaust systems can expel more exhaust quicker then a single exhaust system which decreases back pressure but increases loudness.

Back pressure is when the cylinders have trouble clearing themselves during the exhaust stroke. When the flow of exhaust is restricted this can reduce engine power and mileage and even cause the exhaust vales to burn. Duel exhaust systems have many different setups. Some have two exhaust pipes from the engine that meet at a single catalyst converter and then to a single muffler and tailpipe.

Some also have an equalizer pipe which connects to each of the exhaust pipes before the catalyst converter and muffler. Basic components are found in all exhaust systems. The exhaust manifolds, exhaust pipes, catalytic converters, mufflers, resonators, tailpipes, hangers, and heat shields. Exhaust manifolds direct the exhaust gases from the exhaust ports to the exhaust system. Manifolds are made of cast iron or stainless steal.

They are designed with smooth curves to ease exhaust flow. Some engines use headers. These headers are designed to reduce restrictions, which reduce back pressure. Then the exhaust pipes connect to the exhaust manifold, muffler, converter, and resonator. All pipes in the exhaust system can be called exhaust pipes except for the tail pipe. Exhaust pipes are often double walled, which reduces the amount of noise.

Catalytic converters reduce harmful gases from the exhaust of a Properly Tuned combustion engine. It accomplishes this through a combination of heat and a precious metal catalyst that causes the harmful emissions to either oxidize or reduce to safe elements in the exhaust flow. If the engine is out-of-tune and not calibrated to certain specs, the catalytic converters efficiency is greatly reduced and could lead to a converter failure. The metal catalyst is connected to an extruded ceramic honeycomb substrate.

The ceramic has hundreds of flow channels that allow the exhaust gasses to come in contact with a maximum amount of surface area where the catalyst reaction takes place. The catalyst must come in direct contact with the exhaust gasses for the reaction to take place. If the ceramic inside a converter becomes clogged or coated with carbon, lead or oil, then the converter efficiency is greatly reduced. There are three basic types of automotive catalytic converters; two-way, three-way and three-way + Air.

Each type uses a slightly different method and chemistry to reduce the harmful exhaust emissions. Early model converters used a pallet ized catalyst. Most modern converters are now designed with a free-flowing honeycomb ceramic catalyst. The type of converter required on a particular vehicle varies with model year, engine size and vehicle weight.

Some vehicles even make use of more than one type of converter or a pre-converter to meet emission reduction standards. A two-way converter, used on cars between 1975 1980, oxidizes unburned harmful hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide into water and carbon dioxide. The first vehicles with catalytic converters had two-way reduction only capabilities. A three-way converter is a triple purpose converter. It reduces nitrous oxide into nitrogen and oxygen. And, like the two-way converter, it oxidizes unburned harmful hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide into water and carbon dioxide.

A three-way + Air converter performs the same functions as the three-way converter. It oxidizes and reduces. The difference is the addition of secondary air between the two internal catalyst substrates that improves the oxidation capabilities of the converter. The secondary air is pumped into the middle of the converter between two separate catalyst coated ceramic substrates. The front ceramic performs the reduction and the back ceramic performs the oxidation. Its like having two converters in one.

Each of the three types of converters mentioned above have a common need in order to function properly. Each needs to reach a minimum temperature before any emission reduction or oxidation takes place. This warm-up period immediately after a vehicle is started is when the catalytic converter is least efficient and the vehicle expels the most pollutants. Some vehicles employ a pre-converter in the exhaust system immediately after the manifold to help during this warm-up period. The pre-converters small size and proximity to the engine allow it to heat up and start functioning in less time than the main converter. It also pre-heats the exhaust gasses and helps the main converter reach operating temperature sooner.

A mufflers job is to reduce engine noise without effecting the flow of exhaust. Mufflers come in two designs. The first is the reverse-flow and the second is the straight-through muffler. The reverse-flow muffler uses chambers to reverse the flow of exhaust that reduces engine loudness. In each of these chambers there are many holes which allow the sound wave to cancel each other out. Baffles are another device used in the muffler, which further absorb and dampen exhaust sound.

The straight-flow muffler allows the exhaust to flow though a pipe (with holes and splits) surrounded by steel wool or fiberglass. This kind of muffler reduces back pressure but needs to be replaced more often. Another device in the exhaust system is the resonator. This small muffler is used to reduce engine noise even more.

They are installed at the end of the exhaust system to silence any resonance. They come in reverse-flow and straight-flow also. A hanger is a device used to provide support and to allow system flexibility. These hangers do not allow any exhaust noise or vibration to get to the vehicle body. They must provide shock protection and be able to stand up against exhaust system heat and road debris. Heat shields are basically used to prevent heat damage from the exhaust system.

Other components under your car can not handle this extreme heat and therefore need these heat plates. Heat shields also stop the heat from entering the passenger compartment. All of these parts are just the common parts in exhaust systems. The exhaust system is on of the most important systems on your car. It expels the harmful emissions from you combustible engine. These emissions are not only harmful to the environment but also to human race.

Hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide are probably the most dangerous. Hydrocarbons react with the sun and cause smog, which is a very big environmental hazard. Carbon Monoxide poisoning caused 700 deaths in 1993. Engineers are developing new ways of keeping the air clean.

Soon in the future a new kind of car will be driven, a car that is environmentally friendly. If this happens I will probably be a bit disappointed because nothing beats the sound of a combustible engine. Exhaust Systems The exhaust system on a car is the most important device to keep our environment clean. Many exhaust emissions from the engine such as water, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide, are of little concern. Others, such as hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NO), and carbon monoxide (CO), can cause environmental and health problems if not controlled. Hydrocarbon emissions react with sunlight, which cause photochemical smog.

The exhaust system controls these the best possible way. These emissions leave the engine and travel down the exhaust ports and into the exhaust manifolds. Then the gases travel though the exhaust pipe, catalytic converter, and muffler. Then the filtered emissions leave though the resonator, if used, and the tailpipe.

There are two types of exhaust systems. The single exhaust system and the dual exhaust system. The single exhaust system (as shown in diagram below) consists of only one exhaust pipe. This system unlike the dual exhaust system contains two oxygen sensors. These oxygen sensors detect the amount of oxygen in the exhaust. A lean air-fuel mixture contains an excess amount of oxygen after combustion.

A rich air-fuel mixture contains very little oxygen. When the oxygen sensor detects this it creates a high amount of voltage which the electronic control unit (ECU) detects and compares it to the reference voltage and then creates a lean air-fuel mixture. The single exhaust system pipe, converter, and muffler are sized in proportion to the engine displacement. The duel exhaust system consists of two separate exhaust systems; each equipped with their own catalyst converter and muffler.

Duel exhaust systems can expel more exhaust quicker then a single exhaust system which decreases back pressure but increases loudness. Back pressure is when the cylinders have trouble clearing themselves during the exhaust stroke. When the flow of exhaust is restricted this can reduce engine power and mileage and even cause the exhaust vales to burn. Duel exhaust systems have many different setups. Some have two exhaust pipes from the engine that meet at a single catalyst converter and then to a single muffler and tailpipe. Some also have an equalizer pipe which connects to each of the exhaust pipes before the catalyst converter and muffler.

Basic components are found in all exhaust systems. The exhaust manifolds, exhaust pipes, catalytic converters, mufflers, resonators, tailpipes, hangers, and heat shields. Exhaust manifolds direct the exhaust gases from the exhaust ports to the exhaust system. Manifolds are made of cast iron or stainless steal. They are designed with smooth curves to ease exhaust flow.

Some engines use headers. These headers are designed to reduce restrictions, which reduce back pressure. Then the exhaust pipes connect to the exhaust manifold, muffler, converter, and resonator. All pipes in the exhaust system can be called exhaust pipes except for the tail pipe. Exhaust pipes are often double walled, which reduces the amount of noise. Catalytic converters reduce harmful gases from the exhaust of a Properly Tuned combustion engine.

It accomplishes this through a combination of heat and a precious metal catalyst that causes the harmful emissions to either oxidize or reduce to safe elements in the exhaust flow. If the engine is out-of-tune and not calibrated to certain specs, the catalytic converters efficiency is greatly reduced and could lead to a converter failure. The metal catalyst is connected to an extruded ceramic honeycomb substrate. The ceramic has hundreds of flow channels that allow the exhaust gasses to come in contact with a maximum amount of surface area where the catalyst reaction takes place. The catalyst must come in direct contact with the exhaust gasses for the reaction to take place. If the ceramic inside a converter becomes clogged or coated with carbon, lead or oil, then the converter efficiency is greatly reduced.

There are three basic types of automotive catalytic converters; two-way, three-way and three-way + Air. Each type uses a slightly different method and chemistry to reduce the harmful exhaust emissions. Early model converters used a pallet ized catalyst. Most modern converters are now designed with a free-flowing honeycomb ceramic catalyst. The type of converter required on a particular vehicle varies with model year, engine size and vehicle weight.

Some vehicles even make use of more than one type of converter or a pre-converter to meet emission reduction standards. A two-way converter, used on cars between 1975 1980, oxidizes unburned harmful hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide into water and carbon dioxide. The first vehicles with catalytic converters had two-way reduction only capabilities. A three-way converter is a triple purpose converter. It reduces nitrous oxide into nitrogen and oxygen. And, like the two-way converter, it oxidizes unburned harmful hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide into water and carbon dioxide.

A three-way + Air converter performs the same functions as the three-way converter. It oxidizes and reduces. The difference is the addition of secondary air between the two internal catalyst substrates that improves the oxidation capabilities of the converter. The secondary air is pumped into the middle of the converter between two separate catalyst coated ceramic substrates. The front ceramic performs the reduction and the back ceramic performs the oxidation. Its like having two converters in one.

Each of the three types of converters mentioned above have a common need in order to function properly. Each needs to reach a minimum temperature before any emission reduction or oxidation takes place. This warm-up period immediately after a vehicle is started is when the catalytic converter is least efficient and the vehicle expels the most pollutants. Some vehicles employ a pre-converter in the exhaust system immediately after the manifold to help during this warm-up period.

The pre-converters small size and proximity to the engine allow it to heat up and start functioning in less time than the main converter. It also pre-heats the exhaust gasses and helps the main converter reach operating temperature sooner. A mufflers job is to reduce engine noise without effecting the flow of exhaust. Mufflers come in two designs. The first is the reverse-flow and the second is the straight-through muffler. The reverse-flow muffler uses chambers to reverse the flow of exhaust that reduces engine loudness.

In each of these chambers there are many holes which allow the sound wave to cancel each other out. Baffles are another device used in the muffler, which further absorb and dampen exhaust sound. The straight-flow muffler allows the exhaust to flow though a pipe (with holes and splits) surrounded by steel wool or fiberglass. This kind of muffler reduces back pressure but needs to be replaced more often. Another device in the exhaust system is the resonator. This small muffler is used to reduce engine noise even more.

They are installed at the end of the exhaust system to silence any resonance. They come in reverse-flow and straight-flow also. A hanger is a device used to provide support and to allow system flexibility. These hangers do not allow any exhaust noise or vibration to get to the vehicle body. They must provide shock protection and be able to stand up against exhaust system heat and road debris. Heat shields are basically used to prevent heat damage from the exhaust system.

Other components under your car can not handle this extreme heat and therefore need these heat plates. Heat shields also stop the heat from entering the passenger compartment. All of these parts are just the common parts in exhaust systems. The exhaust system is on of the most important systems on your car. It expels the harmful emissions from you combustible engine. These emissions are not only harmful to the environment but also to human race.

Hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide are probably the most dangerous. Hydrocarbons react with the sun and cause smog, which is a very big environmental hazard. Carbon Monoxide poisoning caused 700 deaths in 1993. Engineers are developing new ways of keeping the air clean. Soon in the future a new kind of car will be driven, a car that is environmentally friendly. If this happens I will probably be a bit disappointed because nothing beats the sound of a combustible engine.

Exhaust Systems The exhaust system on a car is the most important device to keep our environment clean. Many exhaust emissions from the engine such as water, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide, are of little concern. Others, such as hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NO), and carbon monoxide (CO), can cause environmental and health problems if not controlled. Hydrocarbon emissions react with sunlight, which cause photochemical smog. The exhaust system controls these the best possible way.

These emissions leave the engine and travel down the exhaust ports and into the exhaust manifolds. Then the gases travel though the exhaust pipe, catalytic converter, and muffler. Then the filtered emissions leave though the resonator, if used, and the tailpipe. There are two types of exhaust systems. The single exhaust system and the dual exhaust system.

The single exhaust system (as shown in diagram below) consists of only one exhaust pipe. This system unlike the dual exhaust system contains two oxygen sensors. These oxygen sensors detect the amount of oxygen in the exhaust. A lean air-fuel mixture contains an excess amount of oxygen after combustion. A rich air-fuel mixture contains very little oxygen. When the oxygen sensor detects this it creates a high amount of voltage which the electronic control unit (ECU) detects and compares it to the reference voltage and then creates a lean air-fuel mixture.

The single exhaust system pipe, converter, and muffler are sized in proportion to the engine displacement. The duel exhaust system consists of two separate exhaust systems; each equipped with their own catalyst converter and muffler. Duel exhaust systems can expel more exhaust quicker then a single exhaust system which decreases back pressure but increases loudness. Back pressure is when the cylinders have trouble clearing themselves during the exhaust stroke. When the flow of exhaust is restricted this can reduce engine power and mileage and even cause the exhaust vales to burn.

Duel exhaust systems have many different setups. Some have two exhaust pipes from the engine that meet at a single catalyst converter and then to a single muffler and tailpipe. Some also have an equalizer pipe which connects to each of the exhaust pipes before the catalyst converter and muffler. Basic components are found in all exhaust systems.

The exhaust manifolds, exhaust pipes, catalytic converters, mufflers, resonators, tailpipes, hangers, and heat shields. Exhaust manifolds direct the exhaust gases from the exhaust ports to the exhaust system. Manifolds are made of cast iron or stainless steal. They are designed with smooth curves to ease exhaust flow.

Some engines use headers. These headers are designed to reduce restrictions, which reduce back pressure. Then the exhaust pipes connect to the exhaust manifold, muffler, converter, and resonator. All pipes in the exhaust system can be called exhaust pipes except for the tail pipe. Exhaust pipes are often double walled, which reduces the amount of noise. Catalytic converters reduce harmful gases from the exhaust of a Properly Tuned combustion engine.

It accomplishes this through a combination of heat and a precious metal catalyst that causes the harmful emissions to either oxidize or reduce to safe elements in the exhaust flow. If the engine is out-of-tune and not calibrated to certain specs, the catalytic converters efficiency is greatly reduced and could lead to a converter failure. The metal catalyst is connected to an extruded ceramic honeycomb substrate. The ceramic has hundreds of flow channels that allow the exhaust gasses to come in contact with a maximum amount of surface area where the catalyst reaction takes place. The catalyst must come in direct contact with the exhaust gasses for the reaction to take place. If the ceramic inside a converter becomes clogged or coated with carbon, lead or oil, then the converter efficiency is greatly reduced.

There are three basic types of automotive catalytic converters; two-way, three-way and three-way + Air. Each type uses a slightly different method and chemistry to reduce the harmful exhaust emissions. Early model converters used a pallet ized catalyst. Most modern converters are now designed with a free-flowing honeycomb ceramic catalyst.

The type of converter required on a particular vehicle varies with model year, engine size and vehicle weight. Some vehicles even make use of more than one type of converter or a pre-converter to meet emission reduction standards. A two-way converter, used on cars between 1975 1980, oxidizes unburned harmful hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide into water and carbon dioxide. The first vehicles with catalytic converters had two-way reduction only capabilities. A three-way converter is a triple purpose converter.

It reduces nitrous oxide into nitrogen and oxygen. And, like the two-way converter, it oxidizes unburned harmful hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide into water and carbon dioxide. A three-way + Air converter performs the same functions as the three-way converter. It oxidizes and reduces. The difference is the addition of secondary air between the two internal catalyst substrates that improves the oxidation capabilities of the converter.

The secondary air is pumped into the middle of the converter between two separate catalyst coated ceramic substrates. The front ceramic performs the reduction and the back ceramic performs the oxidation. Its like having two converters in one. Each of the three types of converters mentioned above have a common need in order to function properly. Each needs to reach a minimum temperature before any emission reduction or oxidation takes place. This warm-up period immediately after a vehicle is started is when the catalytic converter is least efficient and the vehicle expels the most pollutants.

Some vehicles employ a pre-converter in the exhaust system immediately after the manifold to help during this warm-up period. The pre-converters small size and proximity to the engine allow it to heat up and start functioning in less time than the main converter. It also pre-heats the exhaust gasses and helps the main converter reach operating temperature sooner. A mufflers job is to reduce engine noise without effecting the flow of exhaust. Mufflers come in two designs. The first is the reverse-flow and the second is the straight-through muffler.

The reverse-flow muffler uses chambers to reverse the flow of exhaust that reduces engine loudness. In each of these chambers there are many holes which allow the sound wave to cancel each other out. Baffles are another device used in the muffler, which further absorb and dampen exhaust sound. The straight-flow muffler allows the exhaust to flow though a pipe (with holes and splits) surrounded by steel wool or fiberglass. This kind of muffler reduces back pressure but needs to be replaced more often. Another device in the exhaust system is the resonator.

This small muffler is used to reduce engine noise even more. They are installed at the end of the exhaust system to silence any resonance. They come in reverse-flow and straight-flow also. A hanger is a device used to provide support and to allow system flexibility. These hangers do not allow any exhaust noise or vibration to get to the vehicle body. They must provide shock protection and be able to stand up against exhaust system heat and road debris.

Heat shields are basically used to prevent heat damage from the exhaust system. Other components under your car can not handle this extreme heat and therefore need these heat plates. Heat shields also stop the heat from entering the passenger compartment. All of these parts are just the common parts in exhaust systems. The exhaust system is on of the most important systems on your car. It expels the harmful emissions from you combustible engine.

These emissions are not only harmful to the environment but also to human race. Hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide are probably the most dangerous. Hydrocarbons react with the sun and cause smog, which is a very big environmental hazard. Carbon Monoxide poisoning caused 700 deaths in 1993.

Engineers are developing new ways of keeping the air clean. Soon in the future a new kind of car will be driven, a car that is environmentally friendly. If this happens I will probably be a bit disappointed because nothing beats the sound of a combustible engine.


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