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Example research essay topic: Events Of September 11 Terrorist Attacks - 1,371 words

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It is not a secret that terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City had many bad effects. Thousands people died that day. The marvel of New Yorks architecture, the highest building of the city was destroyed. The world was in panic and in absolute helplessness for several days after the event. Whole country was shocked after realizing that it is possible for something like this to happen. This event was of a great importance and had influenced the perception of the world of many.

However, these are not the single consequences caused by terrorist acts. An event of such a scale has many effects both positive and negative not only on the country as a whole, but also on the perception of the world of every individual. Values of many people were put into danger after such a cruel attack. There are many negative effects caused by events of September 11. First, the whole country was put into danger. American did not feel so scared and did not realize how easy and brutally the lives of many can be taken away since the World War II perhaps.

Feeling of security was shaken. Terrorist attacks also had negative influence on the economy. Several days after the event U. S. markets were low. Millions of dollars were used to clear the area in Lower Manhattan, which was the short-term negative effect.

However, we should not forget that in world economy, where everything is balanced and thanks to security of our country and its economic power and potential it is possible to keep our currency and economy strong. A temporary loss of belief in power of the United States after terrorist attacks will have a negative influence on the development of our economy. However, not only the economy was negatively influenced. The tragic events of September 11 drastically changed the lives of many people causing serious psychological disorders.

After experiencing such a traumatic event, peoples mind has been known to hide this experience deep in memory with all the details and to send these memories back suddenly at unexpected time and place. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating condition that follows a terrifying event. Often, people with PTSD have persistent frightening thoughts and memories of their ordeal and feel emotionally numb, especially with people they were once close to. PTSD once referred to as shell shock or battle fatigue was first brought to public attention by war veterans, but it can result from any number of traumatic incidents. These include kidnapping, serious accidents such as car or train wrecks, natural disasters such as floods or earthquakes, violent attacks such as a mugging, rape, or torture, or being held captive. The event that triggers it may be something that threatened the person's life or the life of someone close to him or her.

It could be something witnessed, such as mass destruction after terrorist attacks in New York City. The tragic events of September 11 were proved by psychologists to cause PTSD. This event was viewed by many as a serious threat of life. I remember that day as clear as it was yesterday. Early in the morning my friend called and asked me to turn on the TV. After watching CNN news I still did not believe that such a thing could happen.

Everybody was in panic. People thought that other terrorist attacks will occur. Nobody knew exactly what to do. It was like a nightmare. The feeling that you might be killed so unexpectedly was in my head for a long time. I just imagine what other people that were in their offices in other huge buildings of major cities felt.

All the evacuation procedures made people scarier and these feelings would remain in their memories for a long time. The symptoms of PTSD may simply be a normal reaction to witnessing a traumatic experience. Only if the symptoms persist longer than three months it is then classified as part of the disorder. Sometimes symptoms arise months or even years later after the event. Psychiatrists categorize Ptsd's symptoms in three categories: intrusive symptoms, avoidance symptoms and symptoms of hyper arousal.

People suffering from PTSD may have episodes where the traumatic event intrudes in their current life. This can occur in sudden vivid memories that are accompanied by painful emotions. Sometimes the trauma is experienced again and again. To explain further, the first criteria is that the person was at one time exposed to a traumatic event involving actual or threatened death or injury, where the response was marked by intense fear, horror or helplessness (Pfefferbaum, The Journal of the Oklahoma State Medical Association, 92 (4), April, 1999).

Firefighters, police officers, and rescue missions were subjected to situations of severe stress during and after the attacks. Many emergency response workers (police, nurses, and medics) may become overwhelmed by the trauma they see so many people go through and end up with intrusive recollections themselves, especially after event of such a big scale. PTSD can occur at any age, including childhood. The disorder can be accompanied by depression, substance abuse, or anxiety (web).

Symptoms may be mild or severe people may become easily irritated or have violent outbursts. In severe cases they may have trouble working or socializing. Not every traumatized person gets full-blown PTSD, or experiences PTSD at all. PTSD is diagnosed only if the symptoms last more than a month. In those who do have PTSD, symptoms usually begin within 3 months of the trauma, and the course of the illness varies.

Some people recover within 6 months, others have symptoms that last much longer. In some cases, the condition may be chronic. Occasionally, the illness doesn't show up until years after the traumatic event (web). The people suffering from PTSD usually try to avoid reminders of tragic events. However, such a behavior of avoidance does not relieve an individual out of repeatedly experiencing flashback episodes of the event that caused the disorder. The form of re-experiencing the event can be nightmares, frightening thoughts, and painful memories.

Emotional numbness and sleep disorders can be also symptoms of PTSD. Constant depression and irritability are other negative effects. PTSD can be diagnosed only if previously mentioned symptoms last more than one month. Statistics shows that each year approximately four percent of population experience PTSD, however, in my opinion the percent was much bigger in 2001 after the events that stressed whole country. PTSD can develop at any age. Symptoms of PTSD usually begin during the three month period after the traumatic event.

After the PTSD develops, it is not possible to say what will be the duration of the illness. In the majority of cases people recover within 6 month, while the people that had very vivid experience (firefighters and rescue workers in New York City) may suffer much longer. Mainly it depends on the person and on the experience. It is possible to treat PTSD with the help of cognitive behavioral therapy, group psychotherapy, and medications such as antidepressants. Also, different types of exposure therapy may be used to treat patients suffering from PTSD. Exposure treatment for PTSD involves repeated reliving of the trauma, under controlled conditions, with the aim of facilitating the processing of the trauma.

Despite many negative effects of September 11, terrorist attacks there are some positive too. First, our country started to pay close attention towards the security, which certainly is good. People should be free to go where they wan and when they wan and they need to be sure that nothing can happen to them. In my opinion, the most important positive effect caused by violent terrorist attacks is the unification of the country. People in their trouble started to pay more attention to the problems of others. The interesting fact is that our country after the tragic events became actually more united and the patriotism level is as high as never before.

Sources: web E. Pfefferbaum, B. , Moore, V. L. , McDonald, N. B. , Maynard, B. T. , Gurwitch, R.

H. , Nixon, S. J. (1999). The role of exposure in posttraumatic stress in youths following the 1995 bombing. The Journal of the Oklahoma State Medical Association, 92 (4), April.


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