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Literature Review OVERALL SUMMARY Overall, this was a good research study that was conducted by professional team of researchers in order to examine the issue of workplace violence, which is related to the most serious problems in health care establishments. As far as the research studies examine various aspects of physical and non-physical violence in health care settings, they present both theoretical and practical backgrounds. The second research conducted by Julie Pryor follows several practical avenues as it is more focused on clinical staff working in inpatient brain injury rehabilitation units located in Australia. A strong experimental approach used by Marilyn L Lanza, Robert A Zeiss and Jill Rierdan is aimed to determine and assess the extent to which non-physical violence can be treated as a risk factor for physical violence in health case establishments. The second research presents theoretical approach compared to the experimental practical method undertaken by Julie Pryor to test a promising intervention that could easily be adopted by nurses to promote better outcomes. Using it as a basic guide to action can help nurses to reduce physical and non-physical violence incidents health case establishments.
Finally, both researches underline the importance of discussed problem from the standpoint of its theoretical and practical relation to health care settings and can be use as a promising start for further researches in this sphere. TITLE The title of the first study demonstrates the independent variable as well as the target readership. Yet, it doesnt give the audience to understand that the overall study was a test of intervention. The title of the second study proposes neither existing solution nor examination of the theme of research.
It imposes the question on a reader, but doesnt indicate the population of interest. ABSTRACT The abstract of the first study is well-structured and provides with summarization of all major features of the study in clearly defined manner, applying logical informative methods of count and statement of facts. The abstract of the second study is more generalized as it provides the reader with general and broad guidelines. Yet, it gives exact details of the issue examined and represents a well-structured summarization with clearly defined assignments and milestones.
INTRODUCTION Problem Statement According to the researches, the nurses working with patients suffering from an acquired brain injury are often exposed to incidents of physical aggression and non-physical violence such as verbal assaults. Both the first and the second studies examine general issue of physical and non-physical violence, which is recognized by the authors as the most serious problems in health care establishments. The research studies examine various aspects of physical and non-physical violence in health care settings by presenting both theoretical and practical backgrounds in order to find appropriate solution and to shape theoretical and practical recommendations. Literature review The authors of the first study clearly done thorough literature review of the scientific issues of every description related to the subject in order to provide a substantial background for building a good hypothesis.
Both studies agree with the existing theories claiming that workplace violence is an issue of the day in health care establishments (Flannery, 1996; Peek-Asa, Schaffer, Kraus, & Howard, 1998). Yet, a considerable part of scientific publications from the first research doesnt not stand up to criticism with relation to static handling of data collected. The second study also presents no substantial preliminary literature research of existing theories and includes no literature exploring the aspects the author does not agree with. The study embraces generalized theoretical framework of the literature relevant to the issue. Hypotheses The authors of the quantitative research took a pattern of hierarchical model of violence examined by Morisons (1992) who reported expression of non-physical or verbal violence typically precedes physically violent behavior for individual patients (Lanza et al. , 2006). The recent research aimed to extend Morisons model of violence.
Based on Morisons model of violence the authors of the first study developed a sound hypothesis that was aimed to test that non-physical or verbal violence can be a risk factor to physical violence. Sound arguments were constructed in a precise manner to examine co variation in documented incidents of violence (physical and non-physical) against clinical and non-clinical staff. Study Purpose and Rationale In contrast to the first research aimed to define correlation between physical and non-physical violence incidents, the overall purpose of the second study is to give others access to such experience by identifying nurses who are experts in the prediction and minimization of aggression and then exploring and exposing the tacit knowledge they hold and the clinical decision-making processes they use (Pryor 2006). The authors undertakes attempt to find an experimental solution for shaping and defining the responses that nurses make to their predictions of aggression (Pryor 2006) as far as scientific medical-related data proposes an extremely small research base for clinical effectiveness of responses of employees working in health care settings to violence incidents in people with acquired brain injury. The second research has more practical approach, whereas the first one refers mainly to the development of theoretical framework. Framework Both researches present an appropriate well-shaped conceptual framework for further examination of the issue.
It includes summarization of necessary variables and underlying indicators of the study. The studies propose well-developed collection of logical and interrelated concepts that are specific and masterly worked-out. The framework of both studies present all necessary details required for further measurement of the effectiveness of research and other important concepts related to the factors of non-physical and physical violence. At the same time, the second study doesnt show substantial analytical framework for physical and non-physical violence incidents as the whole research is based on a range of specific assumptions and series of generalizations. Nevertheless, the problem formulated by the author is quite important as it proposes practical strategies augmented by detailed recommendations aimed to reduce or eliminate the incidences of physical and non-physical violence. METHOD The research design in the first study is more experimental as it has the aim to determine the relationship between the variables in population.
The research design of the second study is more descriptive Both studies present a well-developed experimental research embracing systematic efforts to measure the effects of the intervention (incl. data from other qualitative studies and experiments). The clinical staff (nurses, in particular) was chosen in the second as participants because of their ability to minimize and predict aggression. The Critical Decision Method of interviewing was used during the interview. The thematic analysis was used to analyze the data collected. According to the transcripts of interviews, there were three general responses to predictions of aggression: paying attention, planned nonintervention, and planned intervention (Pryor, 2006).
The statistic methods of the first research were not presented thoroughly, and, as a result, ill-conditioned use of methods and lack of detailed data compilation can prejudice the results of research. It is very important to present correct choice of methods and operations related to survey and its analysis. Taking into account that the scope of any quantitative research is limited, the authors should make all attempts to precisely formulate the aim of research, to organize adequate collection of necessary data, and further to choose adequate method of their evaluation. Unfortunately, the authors have chosen a survey that couldnt be evaluated correctly due to its limited nature. The second research, compared with the research conducted by Marilyn L Lanza, Robert A Zeiss, and Jill Rierdan is more limited and selective as it involves only twenty-eight nurses. However, it gives the reader more accurate account as 28 nurses, selected because of their professionalism, were selected from 10 rehabilitation units compared with 603 participants of a cross-national survey.
Under the code of ethics, the rights of participants of both researches were arguably protected. According to the data used in the second work, a 235 -question survey was sent to all workers along with their leave statements and earnings. The participation was not obligatory and the anonymity of participation was guaranteed. RESULTS According to the results of the second study, workers who had experienced non-physical violence were 7. 17 times more likely to experience physical violence than those who had not (Lanza et al. , 2006). The authors came to conclusion that non-physical violence should be examined as a risk factor for physical violence in health case settings and physical violence is common in health care settings and non-physical violence is virtually normative (Lanza et al. , 2006) as far as approximately 1 / 5 of participants reported at least one incident of physical violence, and approximately 70 % reported at least one incident of non-physical violence during the previous 12 months. Marilyn L Lanza, Robert A Zeiss, Jill Rierdan cite as supporting evidence the findings from studies of other researchers (Duncan et al. , 2001; Find orff et al. , 2005; Gerberich et al. , 2004; Hesketh et al. , 2003; Hodgson et al. , 2004).
The results of the second study have a range of similarities with the previous one, as they also confirm that physical and non-physical violence is common in health care establishments. DISCUSSION Marilyn L Lanza, Robert A Zeiss and Jill Rierdan claim that previous studies omit important questions related to the extent to which predisposition to non-physical violence can be explored as a risk factor for physical violence. The second question relates to the interrelatedness of specific types of physical and non-physical violence. In case the research is conducted properly, the answers can be conductive to reduction of physical violence directly and, indirectly, targeting reduction of non-physical violence. The purpose of the second study bears more practical approach as it is aimed to develop and shape concrete recommendations for the nurses to withstand and / or reduce physical and non-physical incidents of workplace violence. As authors claim, in their Method Section, two health care settings (Veterans Health Administration facilities located in New England and the Midwestern United States) were examined.
Six hundred three workers were chosen to take part in a cross-national survey. Thirty four percent were male and the modal age was 50 - 59 years. The major part of workers was non-Hispanic and White. Twenty-three percent were nursing staff, 31 % were other clinical staff, and 46 % had no patient care responsibilities, although they may have had some job-related contact with patients or visitors (Lanza et al. , 2006). The questions in survey were aimed to define the frequency of each of fourteen types of non-physical violence and eight types of physical violence during the previous 12 months. Physical violence was identified as actual or threatened aggressive physical contact, and non-physical violence involved passive and active forms of aggressive behavior.
The authors used Hodgson et al. survey and the Workplace Aggression Research Questionnaire by Neuman and Keashly in order to identify the types of physical violence. The question related to inappropriate sexual advances was added. The response scales for frequency of violence incidents ranged from never to more than ten times (1 - 8). The participants of survey had to choose the perpetrator of their most recent assault from ten types of perpetrators enlisted that further were reduced from 10 alternatives to 3 broader classes: patient, staff, and other (Lanza et al. , 2006) in order to provide the researchers with more generalized data for analysis.
In order to take into account demographic variables, the participants had to provide with some personal details involving their first language, race, age, gender, ethnic origin, veteran status and staff position. Demographic variables were examined in relation to prevalence of non-physical and physical violence. Further analysis was conducted to evaluate the extent of relationship between non-physical and physical violence. According to the authors analysis, a significant correlation was found between physical and non-physical violence [r (586) = . 50; p <. 01 ] that remained stable when staff position was co varied [r (586) = . 49; p <. 01 ] (Lanza et al. , 2006). According to final calculations, the participants of a cross-national survey who had reported non-physical violence were 7. 17 times more likely to report physical violence.
GLOBAL ISSUES Overall, the first research has well organized structure. It is written in a scientific manner, however, it would have benefited from the inclusion of additional statistic data. The second research should present more scientific approach to the issue discussed and, probably, be more generalized in the target test material. However, the evidences (from cross-national survey) used in the first research are inconclusive and too limited in order to rely on correctness of results received.
The research evidently lacks collection, interpretation and integration of reliable clinical data received in result of reports made by clinical staff and patients, as well as non-clinical staff from more clinics. Both researches are based on surveys and analyses, generalization and interpretation of collected data, its evaluation and recommendations related to its practical implementation in future. Thereupon, along with other recommendations, the most important aspect of researches should be getting appropriate reliable and comparable results that allow making correct conclusions. References: 1.
Lanza, M. L. , Zeiss, R. A. , Rierdan, J. (2006). Non-Physical Violence: A Risk Factor for Physical Violence in Health Care Settings. AAOHN Journal, 54 (9), 397 - 402. 2. Pryor, J. (2006).
What Do Nurses Do in Response to Their Predictions of Aggression? Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 38 (3), 177 - 182.
Free research essays on topics related to: workplace violence, brain injury, physical violence, risk factor, theoretical framework
Research essay sample on Physical Violence Workplace Violence