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The purpose of this paper is to investigate the modern trends in business. The particular emphasis will be placed on the issues of human resource management, communication (both human and technological), and computer system application. The paper will consist of short summaries of ten articles on the above-mentioned issues. 1. Nonverbal communication. Nonverbal communication is the use of the body, environment, and personal attributes in order to communicate messages either consciously or unconsciously. Using clothing, facial expressions, and touch are just of a few ways nonverbal communication can be implemented.
Nonverbal communication is used daily in everybody's lives. Whether a person wants to or not they are susceptible to nonverbal communication. If somebody sees a man in a police officers uniform they automatically associate that with authority without even thinking about it. This is an example of how uncontrollable nonverbal communication is and how it is used to make snap judgments about other people. More often than not, a person will pass judgment before they even here a word out of another persons mouth. A judgment based solely on nonverbal messages sent out by the other.
Nonverbal communication can be both a good and bad thing (but sadly more often a bad one). It can be yielded as a tool to present some sort of image. For example when going to a job interview it is necessary to dress for success, have good posture and eye contact; basically good nonverbal communication skills. All to impress the employer before they start talking to you. However more often than not, it works in the opposite, where having bad nonverbal communication skills leads to disaster (not getting the job). There must be a positive image presented from the very start because it will be more difficult to mend bad impressions later on.
Whether nonverbal communication is used for good or bad depends on how it is yielded and how it is chosen to be interpreted. Oftentimes a persons nonverbal communication skills can mean the difference between failure and success. Retired teacher Theresa Bonillas says that, Nonverbal communication is unfortunately a device that everybody uses to prejudge. By prejudging a person, it is often the case that the real human being is not discovered.
Overall depriving people of knowing the grand, wonderful person that resides within that outer layer of skin. Bonillas explains, Society places too much emphasis on skin color, sex, and age. Skin color, sex, and age are all forms of uncontrollable, nonverbal communication and all have connotations of inferiority. Too many times nonverbal communication is used in a way that is detrimental to society and to progress. Nonverbal communication is and will continue to be an important tool in everybody's lives. Whether the president of the United States or a baby it is impossible to escape its far-reaching grasp.
Nonverbal communication is something that our society places tremendously too much power in. Nonverbal communication is a tool to be yielded with caution; a tool that in the end may help or hurt a situation. However, without a doubt the only way to truly know what to do is to get to know the person not their outside and prepare to be wowed by the magnificence that is life and humanity. 2. Administrative office managers role In modern business environment the role of the office manager has shifted from the basic, and most of the times routine work, like dealing with phone calls and paper processing.
Today office manager type of occupation includes such responsibilities as administrative tasks. The meaning manager finally becomes fulfilled. In the case of one of the private medical practices in Ohio the need for the new office manager appeared at the point when the business could not develop any more. The practice consisted of four doctors who were doing the job of five (one of the physicians has left the practice earlier), and basically they wanted an office manager who would cope with the tasks of recruiting a new physician, and further on see after the development of the business (both in business, and in office space they occupied). Shortly after opening a vacancy for the position of office manager the practice hired Leslie Stephenson (the name has been changed by the author), which appeared very qualified to handle the tasks the doctors had in mind.
However the promises Leslie has made to the doctors at the interview have never come true. Nine months later the business has been suffering approximately 100, 000 of unnecessary consultancy, equipment, and personnel costs incurred by Ms. Stephenson's practice. The executive carte blanche of Leslie did not play well. The case of Leslie Stephenson is a good example of a mistake in personnel selection. Having let an inexperienced person to deal with strategic issues has led Ohio medical practice to great losses. 3.
Theory of motivation The purpose of the next article was to identify through hypothesis study how Herzberg's theory of job satisfaction applied to two different working populations using a questionnaire based on Herzberg's classification scheme. The study was conducted using private and public sector employees for comparison analysis. The t-test technique was applied and the t-value was computed to test the four formulated hypotheses in order to determine whether any significant differences were revealed between the two employee groups. The result of this analysis showed that employees' motives for work in both sectors tended to emphasize intrinsic or motivator factors of employment, while those who worked in the public sector tended to value the extrinsic or hygiene factors significantly higher than those in the private sector. Also, the satisfaction of employees in both sectors was not attributable to hygiene factors.
Job satisfaction traditionally has been assumed to follow a single underlying continuum. One end of this continuum was supposed to represent a high level of satisfaction with the job, while the other end was purported to reflect a high level of dissatisfaction with the job. Points between the two extremes were assumed to reflect various degrees of satisfaction/ dissatisfaction. Frederick Herzberg and his associates conducted extensive interviews with two hundred engineers and accountants using the critical-incident method for data collection.
Herzberg made a theoretical departure from the traditional continuum concept by suggesting that job satisfaction was hypothesized to operate on a continuum, which ranged from high to no job satisfaction-while job dissatisfaction operated on another continuum, which ranged from no to high job dissatisfaction. These two continua were hypothesized to be independent of each other. Based on extensive empirical investigation, Herzberg set forth a two-factor theory of job satisfaction, which received both widespread support and criticism. The research was designed to discover the importance of attitudes toward work and experiences, both good and bad, reported by workers. The Two-factor Theory, or Motivation and Hygiene Theory, purports to differentiate between intrinsic and extrinsic aspects of the job. The authors referred to the intrinsic factors as content or motivators, and they include: achievement, advancement, the work itself, responsibility, and recognition.
The extrinsic factors were referred to as hygiene's and included: company policy and administration, technical supervision, working conditions, salary, and interpersonal supervision. 4. Healthy office environment According to the Kensington Stress Survey 60 % of American workers are experiencing musculoskeletal pain. The reason number one for this is uncomfortable working environment of people. The employees should be heavily concerned with it because the results of these conditions can be in a great loss of employees productivity. More to it, the company risks to be found liable for promoting various mental injuries and disorders among its employees. Ergonomics Standards Plan of OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration), which has been being lobbed in the Congress for quite a time requires the companies to follow the standard set of actions, which are supposed to be helpful in curtailing the growing number of cumulative trauma disorders (CTD), repetitive stress injuries (RSI) and work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD).
The Ergonomics Standards Plan suggests several basic things the management of the organization should follow in order to improve the working conditions within the organization. The articles provides several of these: The chairs should provide an adequate level of flexibility. The person should be able to adjust the chair to his or her individual sitting habits. The personnel should be able to form the furniture in the office in such a way that it is comfortable for them to use it.
The organization should provide people performing repetitive tasks with sufficient amount of free time for rest and relaxation. The best option would be even performing some muscular relaxing exercises. The computers must be qualitative and certified for the compliance with health safety requirements. Telephones for heavy users should be hands-free. 5. Work measurement techniques. Work measurement is basically setting the standards of work performance timing upon the result the qualified worker has shown.
There are many techniques that are used when approaching work measurement. However most of them follow the standard pattern consisting of three simple steps: The Analysis stage, during which the fundamental analysis as to the content of the work and its difficulty is done. Measurement stage implies a setting of the standards for that particular work. And the last step of Synthesizing implies the implication of set standards to similar type of works and one-time tasks.
The techniques used t measure wrk can be classified int the that rely n direct bservatin f the wrk, and the that d nt. Fr example, sme techniques, such as predetermined main-time systems and the use f synthetic r standard data can provide times frm simulation r even visualization f the wrk. However, the data n which such techniques are based were also certainly based n earlier bservatin f actual wrk. Direct bservatin techniques (such as time study and analytical estimating) include a press fr converting b served times t times fr the "qualified water working at a defined level f performance. " The commonest f these processes is known as rating.
The article argues that the main advantage f structured and systematic wrk measurement is that it gives a can currency fr the evaluation and comparison f all types f wrk. The results brained frm wrk measurement are comply used as the basis f the planning and scheduling f wrk, manager planning, wrk balancing in team working, coming, last performance measurement, and financial incentives. They are less comply used as the basis f product design, methods comparison, wrk sequencing, and workplace design. 6. Federal legislation on minimum wages In the article The Minimum Wage of Governor Doyle Bradley S. Winters discusses the effects of a minimum wage increase on employment level, productivity, on different industries. Considering the effect of a minimum wage increase on employment level, Winters first noted that the real value of the minimum wage between 1966 and 1997 has decreased by 17 %.
The real value of the minimum wage represents the nominal minimum wage adjusted to the level of inflation. Therefore according to Winters, since the value of the minimum is less than what it should be in real term, small minimum wage increase would significantly reflect the level of employment. However while the real value of the minimum wage declined for that period, large increase in the desperation of wages occurred at the same time. As a consequence the moderate effect of the real value of...
Free research essays on topics related to: nonverbal communication, minimum wage, wage increase, hygiene factors, job satisfaction
Research essay sample on Nonverbal Communication Minimum Wage