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Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) as defined by the APA (2007) consists of severe recurrent obsessions, that are time consuming marked by preserved insight, distinguished from delusions. Criteria A is that they last more than one hour or one day. The obsessions are intrusive, persistent, unwanted thoughts, impulses, or images that produce anxiety or distress. Compulsions are physical or mental acts that the patient performs to prevent some feared event, or reduce anxiety or distress. Compulsive acts do not include repetitive behaviors motivated by pleasure or gratification.
Obsessions occur spontaneously or are evoked by a feared stimulus or event. Additionally, insight into the irrationality or excessiveness of obsessions is severely compromised or absent. The most common themes of obsessions are fears of germs or contamination or of accidentally or purposely harming others, making a significant mistake, such as leaving a stove on, a door unlocked, not paying a bill, or throwing away something important. The usual onset for the disease is 23 to 35 years old. Being considered homosexual or committing pedophilic acts is an obsession. Hoarding is not feared but regretted.
OCD patients may obsess orderliness or symmetry. They may need to know or to remember everything in the news. Obsessions are often accompanied by a feeling of doubt, uncertainty, or incompleteness that drives repetitive thought or action. Compulsions are performed in response to obsessions. Generally, the compulsions are cleaning, checking to make sure iron is not plugged in or water not left running, Compulsions include asking for reassurance or confessing, hoarding, arranging, repeating behavior, praying, and counting.
An OCD patient became agitated when her apartment was cleaned for her. She had saved each days newspaper for many years, which became a fire hazard. The newspapers also bred cockroaches. Her apartment was heavily infested after many treatments for insects for no apparent reason.
The landlord wanted to evict both Catherine and her husband, Earl. Catherine had accumulated 100 bars of soap, multiple boxes of laundry detergent, and obsessed with cleaning her apartment with multiple cleaners under the sink and in her pantry. She could not wash out the disorder. She could not keep the apartment clean no matter how hard she tried and was on the verge of eviction, which worried her even more.
Her husband, Earl, was a senior, and he did not earn the money required to move. She became irate at the cherished senior center where she was allowed to go with her husband. The landlord was somewhat afraid of her, and she was ordered to the hospital where her medication was changed. Males tend to have earlier onset of the disorder than females. Symptoms of OCD, almost identical in children and adults, differ mostly in severity between early- and late-onset OCD. Early onset sometimes produces compulsions without obsessions.
Early onset is associated with higher rates of co-occurring disorders, There are no known environmental risk factors for OCD. Stressful events may be potential risk factors. Streptococcal infection may be correlated with early-onset OCD consisting or abrupt onset of symptoms and co-occurring tics. Pharmacotherapies improve 32 % to 74 % of OCD patients, improving two-thirds of the patients within a decade of onset.
Nearly half (48 %) experienced no symptoms for 25 years. On the medication, 80 % had (52 %) subclinical symptoms, (28 %) symptoms without distress or interference, and (9 %) showed no improvement while 8 % experienced a deteriorated condition. Re investigating the nature and extent of symptoms after a therapeutic alliance may be helpful in revealing the embarrassing symptoms that the patient may not want to reveal. Outpatient treatment achieved 27 % achieved more than six months remission while 85 % continued waxing and waning symptoms.
Only 2 % achieved full remission through counseling. Catherine required a case manager who made visits to the home along with her pharmacotherapy. She needed a case manager to intervene occasionally with her landlord, at the senior center, or to order her apartment cleaned. She was additionally given a compeer (volunteer friend) from the Mental Health Association. The obsessive compulsion disorder model is sometimes helpful in the treatment of substance abuse patients.
A disturbance of the self occurs and may be self medicated with alcohol or street drugs. Dr. Minelli (2002) asked the questions are athletes compulsive with an obsession to win when they use steroids to enhance performance. Dr.
Fischer (1995) created a treatment model for use in substance abuse counseling based on the compulsive behavior model. While obsessive compulsive patients are difficult to counsel, the therapy proves useful in counseling alcoholic and other substance abusers. Koran, L. , Hanna, G. , Hollander, E. , Nestadt, G. , Simpson, G. (2007)... Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder work group on obsessive-compulsive disorder.
American Psychiatric Association. Fischer, B. (1995). Growing beyond the addiction model: A model of compulsive behavior and the disturbance of the self. Minneapolis, Mn: : Capella University.
Minelli, M. (2002). Drug abuse in sports: A student course manual (5 th ed. ). Champaign, IL: Stipes.
Free research essays on topics related to: substance abuse, risk factors, ocd, compulsive, obsessive compulsive disorder
Research essay sample on Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Substance Abuse