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Example research essay topic: Francisco Jossey Bass San Francisco Jossey - 1,759 words

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Communication And Conflict 1. Discuss the relationship between communication and destructive and constructive conflict. Specifically, address the role communication plays in each type of conflict. According to By and Blank (1977), interpersonal conflict may b did as interaction btwn prson's xprssing opposing interests, view, or opinions.

This definition identifies interpersonal conflict as a form of human communication. Conflict may b an unavoidable situation within any nvironmnt whr two or mor individuals must interact. This conflict, how, can b approach in different ways, which will influence how it is resolved. Conflict can b construction and destructive, resulting in positive and native consquncs for communication btwn popl.

All conflicts can stores. Construction conflict allows for chang, whr destructive conflict will result in a loss of productivity, harm professional and personal relationships. Th us of ffc tiv communication may hold th ky to changing a destructive conflict nvironmnt into on that is construction and results in positive conflict resolution. Som characteristics of construction conflict includ th proposal of but idas and approach's, clarification of othr popl's view, stimulation of creativity and capability, relation of important aspects of a problem, increase of ach members participation, rla's of stores and anxiety. Dstructiv conflict, on th othr hand is most commonly characterized by crating a distance btwn popl, resistance to teamwork, destroying th moral of popl, during diffing in idas and view, promote nam-calling, fighting, tc.

Construction conflict and sometimes turn into a destructive conflict. This is most commonly could by a lack of ffc tiv communication btwn popl. When popl fail to communicate fictively, thy usually do not understand ach othr, which mak's it very difficult to work together. Th bst way out of this situation is talking only about th problem, communicating on th is and xplaining what was misunderstood. Th othr reason for th appearance of a destructive conflict is th lack of trust.

Onc popl stop trusting ach othr's intentions and start suspecting othr's in not following a common goal, th conflict bcom's destructive. This is why it is bst to always demonstrate a common commitment and giv ach member a fair shar in a tams activities. 2. Anal th natur of power in conflict. Specifically, discuss how perceptions of power act communication in conflict. Power is a fundamental notion in any conflict.

Th natur of that power can did upon how th power is disposed, how it is view, and how it is usd. Thr can b power struggl's btwn individuals that fl very powerful and thos that fl that thy hav slight to no power. Th different individual perceptions of power in a conflict can act communication. Power can b distributed in thr different ways: distribution, dsignatd, and intgratd (Wilmot and Hockr, 2007). Distribution power coms from th ability to archive objectives ovr th opposition of another. Dsignatd power is power that is givn to an individual because of a position (for xml, a politician can ltd into an offic to reprint popl of certain ara).

Intgratd power is th power archive by all members of a group in or to archive goals that ar acceptable to vrybody involved in a conflict. All thr different forms of power can act a conflict in several ways. When w look at distribution power, w can s how on person may fl lik a high power person and some fl lik a person with low power. This can lad to a power imbalance which will also lad to th conflict bing unbalanced. A characteristic of a destructive conflict is that parti's start focusing on th power (Wilmot and Hockr, 2007). This can lad th parti's to fl that thy ar in an it / or circumstance and th parti's may fl justified to us "dirty tricks" to must mor power in th conflict.

It can also lad to on person fling lik a victim. In such a situation, communication may b hundred if on is power hungry loss sight of th actual conflict. Things may start to b sn as a win / los situation and th dispute bcom's a struggle (Wilmot and Hockr, 2007). A person fling that thy ar in a low power position may struggle with what to say and may home information or resources that ar not. Dsignatd power is different in th communication process because it is power that is givn to some because of the position. If w tak politics for instant, it is asy to s that th politician is on with a high power state and th votes with th low power state onc th politician is in offic.

During th voting process, th vote is in th position of on with a high power and th power shifts onc th politician is in offic. This is a grat xml of how power is fluid (Wilmot and Hockr, 2007). If on what to the particular politician at any point in tim, h or sh would b mor than like to rain a form let than a tru let, phon call, or a knock at th door. This can lad a person back to fling lik h or sh is a victim. Onc a politician gts into offic it virtually destroys th "relationship" because th politician is not motion ally invited with ach person that vote.

Intgratd power is perhaps th most sought at form of power in a conflict. This typ of power hlp's th different parti's involved in th conflict archive mutually acceptable goals (Wilmot and Hockr). This can lad to a construction conflict that focuss on intrdpndnc and with an opn flow of communication btwn th parti's involved. When popl high the intrdpndnc on ach othr, all source of power increase (Wilmot and Hockr, 2007). When w us power constructively, w stand a but can at resolving a conflict because w been to think outside of th box and nancy relationships with co-work, family, or find. Collaboration and construction realignment of power is bst for all concerns when th high power person is not abusing the position (Wilmot and Hockr).

When w us cooperation w increase power. 3. Examine negotiation in conflict. Specifically, discuss how the language of competition and collaboration contribute to successful negotiation. Effective communication is an integral part of our life. Negotiations accompany any mutual activity. So, what is definition of term negotiation?

Some scholars define negotiation as a process for resolving conflict between two or more parties whereby both or all modify their demands to achieve a mutually acceptable compromise (Negotiations in international business, 2006). Another definition claims that negotiation is a process of adjusting both parties view of their ideal outcome to an attainable outcome (Negotiations in international business, 2006). There is another definition of term negotiation as the use of common sense under pressure to achieve objective (Negotiations in international business, 2006). Although the definitions are different, all of them come to one conclusion.

The aim of negotiation is to reach agreement concerning participation of parties in activity, the results of which will be used for mutual benefit. So, in order to be successful in negotiation, it is very important to have clear understanding of process. Negotiation can be compared with iceberg: its upper part consists of factual part of any negotiation objectives, main and alternative strategy, methods to reach the objective and implementation of strategy (Lewicki, R. J. and J.

A. Litterer, 1985). The lower part of negotiation consists of communication at the level of human element: the art of communication, conviction, personal qualities and psychological types of negotiators. Both parts of iceberg are in constant interaction. The objectives and strategy require constant discussion, some strategies are replaced by others, and finally, in result of negotiation, two objectives should merge in one common goal. Only in this case we can speak about successful negotiation.

It is important o underline that success of negotiation is determined by efforts of all its participants, in other words, by successful team work. In order to reach positive results in negotiation, the participants need to prepare beforehand. So, any negotiations consist of several stages: preparation, process and analysis of negotiation and implementation of agreement. Negotiation is a management in action. Bench-mark of the action is to define the objective. It is very important to understand desired results.

At the same time it is important to answer the question: What is the problem we have to solve in order to reach our objectives in the best way? Negotiator cannot rely only on his memory. In such a way, planning is very important part of negotiation process. It is wrong to set the goal unconditional and implicit acceptance of his point of view. Negotiator has to remember that his decision is only one of variants to reach the goal, but not the only possible solution. Planning and preparation to negotiation include search for the best variant and its detailed examination.

Negotiator also has to place high emphasis on his opponents. It is erroneous to use what is known as projective cognitive similarity the assumption that others perceive, judge, think and reason in the same way when in fact they do not because of differential cultural and practical influences. In case negotiator uses method of projective cognitive similarity, he can fail. Instead, he has to understand the position of his opponent. Collaboration is a process through which parties who see different aspects of a problem can constructively explore their difference and search for solutions that go beyond their own limited vision of what is possible. To truly collaborate, popl should mov away from command-and-control, internally-competitive, star-oriented culture to mac culture in which popl across th norris gain access to th sam data and information and provid input into process improvements, markt creation, innovation and othr ky issus and decisions.

In a collaborative culture, popl fl the input counts regardless of the rol in th organization. Som big that a strategic alliance is collaboration, othr's think that parenting is collaboration. Sources: Costantino, C. A. and Merchant, C. S. (1995).

Designing Conflict Management Systems: A Guide to Creating Productive and Healthy Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, p. 4. Gray, B. (1989). Collaborating: Finding Common Ground for Multiparty Problems. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, p. 5. Lewicki, R.

J. and J. A. Litterer. (1985). Negotiation.

Homewood, IL: Irwin. Thompson, L. L. (2001). The Mind and Heart of the Negotiator, Second Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, p. 2. Negotiations in international business. (2006, December 27).

Retrieved November 25, 2008, from web Wilmot, W. , & Hockr, J. (2007). Interpersonal conflict seventh edition. New York City, McGraw Hill Publications.

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Research essay sample on Francisco Jossey Bass San Francisco Jossey

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