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Hispanic American Diversity The paper identifies the linguistic, political, social, economic, religious and familial conventions and statuses of four main Hispanic groups living in the United States. The present study covers Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, Brazilian, and Cuban groups, summarizes major differences and commonalities apparent among each group. Mexican Americans make up about 60 per cent of the Latino/ Hispanic population in the United States and 7. 4 per cent of the American population in general (Ramirez, 2004). It is traditionally considered the largest ethnic group, versus Puerto Ricans, who comprise 9. 7 per cent of the Hispanic population, and Cubans (3. 5 per cent correspondingly).
In their vast majority, Mexican Americans live in New Mexico, Texas, California, Arizona, and Colorado. Naturally, the difference between Mexican Americans and other Hispanic Americans comprises 500 years of history of their own, along with completely different features of the native population. Similar to Cubans, and Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans speak Spanish. Brazilian culture is historically considered to be rich in its variety, taking into account the fact that Brazilian group has Chinese, French, Italian, Portuguese, African, Arab, Japanese, German, and native Brazilian Indian roots. In contrast to other Hispanic groups, Brazilians language is Portuguese. Frankly speaking, their Portuguese language significantly differs from original language due to dialects and process of assimilation.
Similar to other Hispanic American groups, Brazilians immigrate to the United States due to poor condition of their economy. Similar to Puerto Ricans, Cubans and Mexicans, Brazilian social and economic condition is very poor. Alike other Hispanic groups, the overwhelming majority of Mexicans are cheap labor illegal immigrants and predominantly occupy most blue-collar occupations, such as restaurant workers, janitors, truck drivers, gardeners, construction laborers, material moving workers, and other manual labor (Mexican American, 2006). Brazilians enter the U. S. in search for better employment and educational opportunities (Coler, 2006).
For reference purposes, Puerto Ricans are the poorest Hispanic group with the average individual income of $ 33, 927 (in 2002), compared to the average income of Cubans ($ 38, 733), Asians ( ($ 49, 981), and other Hispanics ($ 38, 200) (Puerto Ricans in the United States, 2006). In contrast to other Hispanic groups, Mexicans seem to expose the most positive tendency for enhancing their social and economic status. As it is asserted in the U. S. census, there was an increase in average personal and household incomes for Mexican Americans in the early 2000 s. U.
S. born Mexican Americans earn more and are represented more in the middle- and upper-class segments more than recently arriving Mexican immigrants (Mexican American, 2006). Although Cubans are considered to have a higher rate of home ownership, higher level of education, and higher household income, their social and economic status is not high, and Cubans average household income comprises only $ 36, 671 (Cuban American, 2006). According to the U. S.
Census, Hispanic groups have the highest percentage of unemployed people (36. 5 % of Puerto Ricans). The vast majority of Hispanic groups report unemployment due to insufficient and poor knowledge of English. In contrast to other Hispanic groups, Brazilians seems to be more educated, - one-third of Brazilian immigrants in the United States have a university education (Coler, 2006). For comparison purposes, only 25 per cent of Cubans have college education, while 39 per cent of native-born Cubans have either a college degree or higher education (Cuban American, 2006). Puerto Ricans show the highest percentage of undereducated Hispanic American population. Similar to other groups, the family unit is, obviously, the most important social unit in the life of Mexican American.
As well as for other Hispanic American groups, family responsibilities are the matter of primary importance, and family ties are very strong. Male dominance and gender differences may insignificantly vary due to socioeconomic class and education (Coler, 2006). Similar to other Hispanic groups, Brazilians have patriarchal model of society. The average Hispanic family has a male as the leader of the family, while the mother is usually responsible for the household, food, and child upbringing. The corner stone of an average Hispanic family is familial unity and success.
Yet, similar to other Hispanic American groups, the concepts of womanhood and manhood seem to be changing to a more egalitarian model with increased exposure to American society (Warrix, 2007). Similar to other Hispanic Americans, Mexicans are very religious. The vast majority of Mexicans (as well as Puerto Ricans, Brazilians and Cubans) belong to Roman Catholic Church. Evangelical Protestantism is the second popular religion for Mexican Americans, while Cubans less popular religions are spiritualist practices (such as Santeria), Protestant church, Jewish religious practices, and other non-religious spiritual practices. Insignificant percentage of Brazilians belong to other religious practices, such as spiritualism (for example, Afro-Brazilian sects and the Western Universal Church of the Reign of God (Coler, 2006) ), Eastern religions and Protestantism. Conclusion Hispanic Americans seems to have much in common.
Yet, there are some differences that occur due their cultural, historic, and social reasons. According to the U. S. Census, Mexican Americans belong to the largest Hispanic group in the United States. The vast majority of Hispanic Americans is unemployed and has low individual and household income due to poor knowledge of English language and lack of education. Many of them belong to cheap labor illegal immigrants and predominantly occupy most blue-collar occupations.
The vast majority of Hispanic Americans belong to the Roman Catholic Church. Their model of family is patriarchal, maintained by a male, while female spouse is responsible for child upbringing. Social and economic status is very poor, with the recent tendency for enhancement. References Coler, M. S. (2006). Brazilian-Americans.
Retrieved July 4, 2007, from web Cuban American. (2006). Retrieved July 4, 2007, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: web Mexican American. (2006). Retrieved July 4, 2007, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: web Puerto Ricans in the United States. (2006). Retrieved July 4, 2007, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: web Ramirez, R.
R. (2004). We the People: Hispanics in the United States. Census 2000 Special Reports. Warrix, M. (2007). Cultural Diversity: Eating in America. Retrieved July 4, 2007, from web
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