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The Black Death was a bacterium which was carried by flea infested rats. This disaster spread across Europe quite rapidly. Much accusation for the cause of the plague was pressed onto the Jewish community. The most common plague was the bubonic plague, although the pneumatic plague also existed. This disaster caused economic, social, political and cultural havoc. Approximately 50 % of the infested population died, which, was estimated between 19 to 38 million.
During this occurrence 25 to 50 percent of the population throughout Europe decreased. The plague began around 1347 and did not end until around 1369. What major problems did European states face in the fourteenth century? There was economic mayhem during 1347 - 1351 caused by drop in population, which was caused by the immense amount of deaths caused by the Black Death. Peasants salaries were increasing where as aristocrats' loss around 20 percent of their income.
This caused social instability and lead riots. Peasants revolted against the nobles which affected commercial and industrial activities. The political structure changed causing instability. This was due to internal conflicts on who should lead to bureaucracy. How and why did the authority and prestige of the papacy decline in the fourteenth century? The papacy began to lose control when King Philip IV chose to tax the French clergy, without the pope's consent.
The Struggle was based on authority between the papacy and the royal sovereignty of the monarch. The church also lost a great deal of their prestige when the cardinals had elected two popes, Pope Urban VI and Pope Clement VII. Soon after a third Pope joined the crowd in an effort to resolve the problem of the two first Popes, although this only caused more chaos. What were the major developments in art and literature in the fourteenth century?
The most prominent development in the fourteenth century was creation of vernacular literature. Vernacular languages shortly became as used as much, if not more, than Latin. The fourteenth century was also a great era for European writers such as Dante Alighieri, Geoffrey Chaucer and Christine de Plan who wrote The Book of the city of Ladies, which was criticized by many male writers. Giotto "a forerunner of Italian Renaissance painting' also made his presence in this century. The most famous works of Giotto were completed in Padua and Florence. The high renaissance was part of the final section of the renaissance art.
The three artist that dominated this type of art were Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Michelangelo. The artwork after the plague was considered to be more dark and sorrowful. How did the adversities of the fourteenth century affect urban life? Authorities tried to keep the cities cleaner by closing such things as bathhouses in order to create cleaner distracts.
Although in this attempt it lead to a decline in cleanliness The general theme for families in the late medieval urban era was the nuclear family. Individuals chose to marry at younger ages and began nuclear families to try regenerating the population from the Black Death. The Europeans formed a division of labor between males and females which continued on until the Industrial Revolution.
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Research essay sample on Fourteenth Century Black Death