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... to communism were hostile. (New York Times, par 4) NSC 68. In April of 1950, a top secret document was given to Truman by the National Security Council (NSC). It was declassified in 1975. The document was called NSC 68 written under direction of National Security Advisor Paul Note and it had was a amalgamation of all three proposals and both competing ideologies. Before Truman's presidency, Eisenhower had adopted the idea of a rollback to deal with communism.
Roll back was the idea that the Soviet Union would withdraw from communism once it pushed them into inevitable debt. However, once out of under Eisenhower's shadow, Truman decided to take a more agressive stance. Laissez-faire politics in foreign affairs had ended. The document was in response of two international events: China recently became communist and Russia exploded an atomic bomb, a technology the United States did not expect from the Soviet Union at the present. (NSC 68: United States Objectives and Programs for National Security, page 1) It proposed the maintenance of a strong military stance. A strong military stance was important for two reasons: it guaranteed our national security and it served as an indispensable backdrop to the conduct of the containment policy. (NSC 68: United States Objectives and Programs for National Security, page 3) In summary, the principal features of the policy were the assistance to Europe and other under-developed areas in recovery and the creation of a viable economy (Marshall Plan and Containment) and the purchase and stockpiling of strategic materials (Dulles). (NSC 68: United States Objectives and Programs for National Security, page 4) Application to Today The National Briefs of the Charlotte Observer, May 16, 2000, stated: The House (of Representatives) moved Monday to set up a Marshall Plan for AIDS-devastated Africa. Like the Marshall Plan, many other doctrines of policy during the Cold War era are still used today.
The Cold War provided clarity to United States foreign policy. (Spanier, page 308) In the post-Cold War era, the Gulf War broke out- which is believed to be a direct result of the death of the communist super power. (Spanier, page 283) However in many instances, like the Gulf War, techniques in aiding economically devastated nations with military means has become a trend. Lessons from the Cold War, and its visible legacies in late 1990 s, illuminate issues, problems, and patterns of American Foreign Policy... (Spanier, back cover) The American Cold War foreign policy set an example for many policy makers to refer to in the future. Foreign aid is still applicable today and military intervention as well. Conclusion The Cold War refers to the political and strategic struggle that came to be after World War II between the United States and Western European Allies. (Academic American Encyclopedia, page 98) It is also a monumental frontier that marks the eventual international policies and reactionary documents. For 35 years, foreign policy was guided by containment and NSC 68.
For the rest of the post-Cold War era, the policies in the wake of the Cold War will be looked at as precedents. Works cited: Academic American Encyclopedia: Deluxe Library Edition (United States: Grolier Incorporated, 1993) This encyclopedia provided information on doctrines and other general information dealing with foreign policy. Britannica. com, key word: strategy [database on-line]; available from web Internet; accessed 08 February 2001 Britannica.
com provided general information on foreign policy and strategy during the Cold War. Brinkley, Alan. American History: A Survey (Boston: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. , 1999) Brinkleys book provided an overview and information on the Cold War policy over the 35 years it was enacted. It also gave resulting information where such policies were used. Churchill, Winston. Iron Curtain Speech (New York: City News Publishing Company, Inc, 1996) Winston's speech provided significant information on the relationship between Russia and America in the early part of the Cold War.
It also promoted democracy for ideology. De Tocqueville, Alexis. The Russians and the Americans: Democracy in America vol. 1, chapter 18 De Torquevilles document was a prophecy for what the two super powers were to do, almost one hundred years later. Dulles Formulated and Conducted United States Foreign Policy for more than 35 years: New York Times [database on-line]; available from web Internet; accessed 10 February 2001 The New York Times provided information on Dulles importance in Cold War foreign policy. Ford, Benjamin, Economic Interests, Party, and Ideology in Early Cold War Era United States Foreign Policy: International Organization [document on-line]; available from web Internet; accessed 21 January 2001 Fords document provided information on ideology, interpretations, and an overview of the Cold War. Heritage Foundation, the, Architects of Victory: Six Heroes of the Cold War [document on- line]; available from web Internet; accessed 30 January 2001 The Heritage Foundation was useful because it gave enticing quotes from Truman and information on Truman's policy of containment.
MES. net, Containment Through Economics [document on-line]; available from web Internet; accessed 05 February 2001 This document gave sufficient information on the policy of containment during the Cold War. National Security Council, NSC 68: United States Objectives and Programs of National Security [document on-line]; available from web Internet; accessed 09 February 2001 NSC 68 was a the key factor to the Cold War foreign policy and helped this research paper a lot in understanding what policies were important and ideologies. Richardson, Jo, Defining the Post-Cold War National Interest [document on-line]; available from web Internet; accessed 09 February 2001 Richardson's document was helpful in the understanding of ideology during the Cold War.
Singh, Robert, American Foreign Policy [document on-line]; available from web Internet; accessed 04 February 2001 Singh's document provided information on American ideologies that led up to the foreign policies enacted upon during the Cold War era. Spanier, John and Steven Hook. American Foreign Policy: Since World War II (Washington, D. C. , Congressional Quarterly Inc, 1995) Spanier's book provided a superfluous amount of information on foreign policy and how it was applied.
Thinkquest team, Cold War: The Cause [document on-line]; available from web Internet; accessed 10 February 2001 This document provided the factors that led up to the Cold War.
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Research essay sample on Cold War Foreign Policy