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Example research essay topic: Planets Revolve Copernican Theory - 1,512 words

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... an accelerating automobile feel the force of the seat against their backs overcoming their inertia so as to increase their velocity. As the car decelerates, the passengers tend to continue in motion and lurch forward. If the car turns a corner, then a package on the car seat will slide across the seat as the inertia of the package causes it to continue moving in a straight line.

Any body spinning on its axis, such as a flywheel, exhibits rotational inertia, a resistance to change of its rotational speed. To change the rate of rotation of an object by a certain amount, a relatively large force is required for an object with a large rotational inertia, and a relatively small force is required for an object with a small rotational inertia. Flywheels, which are attached to the crankshaft in automobile engines, have a large rotational inertia. The engine delivers power in surges; the large rotational inertia of the flywheel absorbs these surges and keeps the engine delivering power smoothly. An object's inertia is determined by its mass.

Newton's second law states that a force acting on an object is equal to the mass of the object multiplied by the acceleration the object undergoes. Thus, if a force causes an object to accelerate at a certain rate, then a stronger force must be applied to make a more massive object accelerate at the same rate; the more massive object has a larger amount of inertia that must be overcome. For example, if a bowling ball and a baseball are accelerated so that they end up rolling at the same speed, then a larger force must have been applied to the bowling ball, since it has more inertia. Gravitation is property of mutual attraction possessed by all bodies of matter. The term is sometimes used synonymously, but properly refers only to the gravitational force between the earth and objects on or near it.

The law of gravitation, first formulated by the English physicist Sir Isaac Newton in 1684, states that the gravitational attraction between two bodies is directly proportional to the product of the masses of the two bodies and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. In algebraic form the law is stated where F is the gravitational force, m 1 and m 2 the masses of the two bodies, d the distance between the bodies, and G the gravitational constant. The value of this constant was first measured by the British physicist Henry Cavendish in 1798 by means of the torsion balance. The best modern value for this constant is 0. 0000000000667 newton meter squared per kilogram squared (6. 67 1011 N m 2 kg- 2). The force of gravitation between two spherical bodies each having a mass of 1 kilogram and having a distance of 1 meter between their centers is 0. 0000000000667 newtons. This is a very small force; it is equal to the weight of an object on earth with a mass of about 1 / 150, 000, 000, 000 kilograms.

Acceleration is also known as linear acceleration or the rate at which the velocity of an object changes per unit of time. Acceleration is a vector that is, it has both magnitude and direction. Acceleration is uniform if the rate of change of an object's velocity is the same over successive and equal time intervals. For example, an object that is released and allowed to fall freely towards the ground is accelerated uniformly. An object tied to a string and swung at a constant speed in a circle above a person's head is also accelerated uniformly; in this case, the acceleration vector points along the string toward the person's hand.

Angular acceleration is the rate at which the rate of rotation of a spinning object changes per unit of time. In the winter of 1609 he set out his telescope up and began to investigate the stars and the skies. He recorded his findings in Siderous Nuncuis, which later made him famous all through out Europe. In his paper he stated his findings. He found that the moons surface was similar to that of the Earth, in that it was mountainous. He discovered that the Milky Way was made up of key stars.

Later he found that the planet Jupiter had what appeared to be rings. Than when he built a Microscope of greater magnitude he saw and identified four rings. When looking into the sky one day he noticed that Venus was much larger than previous previously believed. He noticed that the planet Venus had several stages just like the Earth's moon. From there he would later build and help the world today understand the mystery of our solar system. The telescope is a man made instrument that is used to magnify objects at a distance.

The development of the telescope is credited to three people: Have Lippershey- the inventor, Galileo- credited for the use in scientific investigation, and Johannes Kepler was the first to apply the convex lens to a telescope, for a greater magnification and field of vision. The telescope which Galileo used is referred to a refracting telescope. It is made up of a hallow tube and two lenses, on one side the eyepiece and on the other side the glass lens referred to as the objective lens. The objective lens gathers the light gathers the light from the object being viewed.

When the light hits the objective being viewed. When the light hits the objective lens the rays are bent until they come to a point. An image of the object being viewed is found at the focal point. When the light reached the eyepiece the image of the focal point is enlarged, and the object being viewed is enlarged and appears to be much larger. Since the image was bent as it passed the objective lens, the image viewed appears to be upside down... By adding another piece of glass the image can be bent right side up once again.

After his writing of Physics and the telescope he began to gain recognition. The recognition caught the attention of Cosimo de Medici. Cosimo de Medici was one of the for fathers of modern day Cosmology. When he got in contact with Galileo he invited him to return to Florence as a mathematics advisor to the Duke. He was quick to accept and spent much of his time there holding conferences to demonstrate and reveal his ideas of the skies and gravity. Then later his job took him to Rome.

For four months in 1611 he spent his time teaching, Discussed and demonstrating his ideas and discoveries. After returning to Florence in 1613, he wrote a letter in which he attempted to demonstrate that the Copernican Theory agreed with both the Catholic Doctrines and Biblical interpretations. The people and groups against Galileo's ideas sent a copy of the letter to the philosophers of Rome. Then in 1616, he was summoned to Rome for an official evaluation of his faith, and the role his faith played on his scientific thinking. He was allowed to leave with no charges of heresy. He was cleared of charges, but was told that he couldn't publically write of or comment on the Copernican Theory.

The Copernican theory is based on the idea that the planets revolve around the sun. As the planets revolve around the sun, they also spin one a day. This spin was te cause for the forming of night into day and day into night. This idea was formulated by a man with the name of Nicholas Copernicus of Poland. All of his thoughts were revealed in his book entitled "On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres. He had no way of proving himself other that he mathematical equations.

Then in 1634 going against his ban on discussing the Copernican theory. He released his book entitled Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems. In his book he compared the Copernican theory to the Ptolemaic theory. He stated and proved his ideas that the Copernican theory of the planets was more logical. because he went against his orders he was called back to Rome one more time. This time he was not able to escape the accusations of heresy.

He was ordered take back his statements in his book and was then sentenced to life in prison. Since he grew old and his health deteriorated, the church allowed him to spend the remainder of his days in a small village outside of Rome. There he wrote his final book on entitled Discourse on Two New Sciences, in 1638. In that book he indicated his mathematical equations to prove his ideas of Physics, inertia and falling bodies. Shortly after the release of his book he lost his sight. Then in 1642 he died in Florence, ending his life sentence for heresy against the church.

Galileo is considered the founder of merely day physics. His contributions are still the basis of what we study today. He was a man far beyond his time. Bibliography:


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Research essay sample on Planets Revolve Copernican Theory

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