Classical Conditioning And Observational Learning - 1,690 words
Most Psychologists agree that the process of learning is usually permanent and is credited to past experience. However, they differ greatly in their belief as to what mechanisms are actually involved in learning to make changes occur and what kinds of past experiences are involved (Gross, (1992) p.165). It is the authors intention, within the body of this essay to examine and evaluate the theory of learning from a behaviourist viewpoint, focusing on classical conditioning and the social learning theory, concentrating on observational learning. BEHAVIOURISM The behaviourism approach sees every individual born a blank book. An individuals personality and the kind of person they become are whol ...
Free research essays on topics related to: classical, classical conditioning, conditioning, learning process, learning theories, learning theory, observational
Affolding In Education - 2,155 words
The World Wide Web is being seen more and more as an effective and above all inexpensive means of delivering courses in the tertiary education sector. It is important however that financial imperatives to not take precedence over educational goals. In the search for an effective approach to Web learning, an re-examination of learning theory is required. This paper examines the three broad philosophies of Behaviourism, Cognitive Theory, and Constructivism and reviews their potential for delivering tertiary education via the Web. Problems with the Web are identified, such as the abstract textual nature of current Web technology, and the poor interactivity resulting from limited bandwidth. One ...
Free research essays on topics related to: distance education, tertiary education, university campus, high fidelity, purely
Four Types Of Learning - 970 words
The four types of learning are classical conditioning, operant conditioning, social learning, and cognitive learning. In this paper I will give you an overview on each type of learning and examples of each. Classical Conditioning is the first part of conditioning discovered by Ivan Paslow in which associations are made between a natural stimulus and a learned, neutral stimulus. It is the most primitive of learning. Classical Conditioning consist of conditional and unconditional stimulus and conditional and unconditional response. Response is a reaction to stimulus. Stimulus is anything that elicits a response. Unconditional Stimulus is a stimulus that automatically elicits a response. Condit ...
Free research essays on topics related to: cognitive learning, learning theory, observational learning, social learning, social learning theory
Phychoanalitic Evaluaion - 687 words
From the outside it almost seems as if he is shying away from the world. Always keeping to himself and very seldom is found leaving his residence. Not shying away from the world in fear, but rather in an insecure manner. He seems to live in his own world, not caring about what is going on around him or what he is missing out on. He lives according to his standards and rarely lets his peers influence him. Once you have the chance to get to know him, your perception of him changes. Though from the outside he seems to be over looking the world, he intact has a lot to offer. You will find that he has a personality and only those who truly know him, can understand him; only those who understand h ...
Free research essays on topics related to: unconditioned stimulus, operant conditioning, classical conditioning, reasoning, associate
Classical Operant And Observational Conditioning - 762 words
Classical, operant, and observational are all types of conditioning and learning. Conditioning, in psychology, is causing an organism to exhibit a specific response to a stimulus. A stimulus is anything that Classical conditioning is a form of learning, in which a reflexive or automatic response transfers from one stimulus to another. For instance, a person who has had painful experiences at the dentists office may become fearful at just the sight of the dentists office building. Fear, a natural response to a painful stimulus, has transferred to a different stimulus, the sight of a building. Most psychologists believe that classical conditioning occurs when a person forms a mental associatio ...
Free research essays on topics related to: classical, classical conditioning, conditioning, observational, operant, operant conditioning
How To Trainn A Dog - 645 words
What I want to do is train my dog to shake with either paw upon request. If I say right I want him to raise his right paw and the same for the left. I would use operant and classical conditioning to reach the goal of teaching this trick to my dog. I must condition the dog to shake by using positive reinforcement. The dog (Max) already puts his paw on me when I grab his head so I will act like I am going to reach for his head and when he puts his paw on me I will say, shake. Every time he puts his paw on me after I say shake I will give him a liver treat. Once I have conditioned him to shake it will then be time to differentiate right from left. I want the words, shake right and shake left t ...
Free research essays on topics related to: positive reinforcement, unconditioned stimulus, classical conditioning, classical, cooperate
Quiz 1 - 713 words
Children raised in a single-parent home are not necessarily more prone to be social misfits (those who have behavioral problems and perform acts deemed as unacceptable by society) than children raised in a two-parent home. First, I gave an operational definition to the term "social misfits" which is ambiguous and could be interpreted in many ways by different people. Also, in making this statement, I examined the evidence. Personal experience and observation of other children raised in single-parent homes led me to this conclusion. The evidence I used is not necessarily the most reliable because it is not based on any group study or scientific research, but the topic is researchable and I be ...
Free research essays on topics related to: quiz, positive reinforcement, scientific research, classical conditioning, driver
Breaking The Chains Of Violence - 1,207 words
Breaking the Chains of Violence To return violence for violence does nothing but intensify the existence of violence and evil in the universe. Someone must have sense enough and morality enough to cut off the chains of violence and hate. We live in a society that has seen a tremendous rise in juvenile violence over the past ten years. Juvenile homicides are twice as common today as they were in the mid-1980's (Begley 35). Forcible rapes by juveniles rose 28% between 1981 and 1990, while aggravated assaults jumped 57% (Leone 61). Dare we "have a dream" that future generations will no longer experience the hate and violence we have in our present society? In order for this to happen, the cause ...
Free research essays on topics related to: teen violence, therapeutic interventions, school shooting, violent behavior, permanent
Breaking The Chains Of Violence - 1,192 words
... th no existing norms or values. As discussed earlier, the experiences of a newborn will actually determine which neuropathways are developed in the brain. Psychiatrist Dr. Dorothy Lewis has spent more that twenty-five years studying the motives of murderers. She believes that the seeds of violence are sewn by childhood abuse (Vaughan 551). One of her most striking realizations after interviewing scores of kids behind bars has been the high rates of child abuse among children who kill. In one study, ninety-six percent of homicidal children have come from chaotic family backgrounds, usually including family violence. Ninety percent have been abused as a child by a family member (Morse 122) ...
Free research essays on topics related to: family violence, teen violence, teenage violence, television violence, violence children, violence on television, youth violence
Clasical Conditioning - 363 words
We can see learning taking place all the time, but there is no simple explanation of the process. Psychologists have examined four types of learning; one of these is classical conditioning or response learning. Classical conditioning is the easiest kind of learning. Classical conditioning is based on experiments that took place in the 1900s by the Russian physiologist Ivan P. Pavlov. He trained dogs to salivate at signals such as lights, tones, or buzzers by using the signals when he gave food to the dog. Pavlov called the learned response a conditional response because it depended on the conditions of the stimulus. This learning process is based on stimulus response relationships. A stimulu ...
Free research essays on topics related to: classical conditioning, conditioning, learning process, lemon juice, suppose
Classical Learning Vs Operant Learning - 1,617 words
There are many different fields of study in psychology. One field of study is the cognitive process of learning. Learning is any relatively permanent change in behavior (or behavior potential) resulting from experience (Baron G-7). The learning process helps us, all organisms, adapt to changing conditions in our environment and the world around us. Although the effects of learning are very diverse, many psychologists believe that learning occurs in several basic forms. Two of these forms are called classical learning or classical conditioning and operant learning or operant conditioning (170). Classical Conditioning is a basic form of learning in which one stimulus comes to serve as a signal ...
Free research essays on topics related to: classical, classical conditioning, learning process, operant, operant conditioning
Abstracts - 3,618 words
... STRACTS UPDATED4/may/99 (Contact David Washburn for reprints and related publications) Supported by grants from NASA, NICHD, ARI, ARO, ONR, USAF Washburn, D. A., & Putney, R. T. (1999, June). Attention Profiles of Working Memory. Paper at the meeting of the American Psychological Society. Although each construct has its own literature, phenomena, and theories, it is widely recognized that attention and working memory are integrally related. Individual differences in serial probe recognition performance were profiled across basic dimensions of attention. Good working memory tended to be associated with good concentration, scanning, and attention-control skills. Washburn, D. A., & Putney, ...
Free research essays on topics related to: computer hardware, human science, adaptation syndrome, minneapolis, respective
Theory Of Reinforcement - 1,278 words
... ne was in trouble, she would ease over to the child and scan the test, looking for mistakes. When she found an error, she would quietly take her pencil, tap it beside the mistake, so that the child knew there was an error on the test and where the error was. Then the teacher would take the pencil and whack it on the kid's nose. (When you are taking a test, Do make a mistake, Get a rap on the nose). Certainly an excellent application of the reinforcement paradigm and I would have to give it an "A" for correctness and an "F" for effectiveness. While Reinforcement Theory is a powerful influence tool, it does have several serious limitations. To use it effectively, you must be aware of these ...
Free research essays on topics related to: reinforcement, reinforcement theory, york harper, classical conditioning, peer
Youth And Crime - 1,480 words
There has been a steady increase in the number violent crimes committed by todays adolescence. Headlines in newspaper read Two teen kill13 and wound several others Fourteen year old boy kills one and wounds another. Incidences like these are shocking society today. Why is this violence happening? Todays children are growing up in a more violence society. Violence is shown on television, through video games and through different advertising campaigns. Are young kids killing their peers to solve their problems, for respect, or for curiosity? Findings from interview with clinical psychologists, correctional workers, educators and, military personal solve what the problems facing todays youth ar ...
Free research essays on topics related to: video game, effective parenting, more violent, casual, accountable
Psychology - 767 words
Question 1: Psychology as a science has developed over a long period of time, literally centuries. During this period of time , man individuals have had an impact on the development of Psychology as a science. Select three individuals, describe in detail the contributions of the individuals, and discuss the significance of the person to the development of Psychology as a science. In this paper I am going to talk about three different individuals , and describe their contributions to Psychology. I am also going to talk about how there contributions had a significant effect on Psychology as a science. These three people are the three that I consider the most important people of Psychology. Psy ...
Free research essays on topics related to: psychology, operant conditioning, industrial revolution, ivan pavlov, professor
Understanding Learning - 1,065 words
... it is encoded (this means that memory traces are made). Then, the information can be stored in the memory and later retrieved. The three memory components are sensory register, Short-term memory, and long-term memory. Our sensory registers are like a video camera, they pick up information as it is happening. Short-term memory can be likened to the cable that carries the information from the camera to the video tape. Our short-term memory can hold only a limited amount of information for a limited amount of time. The last of the components, long-term memory, can be compared to the video tape. The video tape stores the information picked up by the camera, and carried by the cable, for an ...
Free research essays on topics related to: learning theory, observational learning, social learning, social learning theory, long term memory
Behavioral Cognitive Theories - 2,303 words
There were several predominant theorists in the cognitive behavioral meta-theory. Each theorist came to their conclusions, were received, and added to therapeutic skills in different ways. Their biographical history allows for a better understanding of how they came upon their conclusions. Their theories add to the understanding of human nature. Their critics expose flaws or oversights in the theories. The techniques used in the action stage of therapy today all have some historical roots in these theories and the theories of others. The overall goal being to focus on making changes in behaviors, thoughts, and feelings while continuing to explore feelings and examine values, priorities, barr ...
Free research essays on topics related to: behavioral, cognitive, cognitive behavioral, more prone, most effective
Pschological Disorders - 1,120 words
1. Memory Mechanism Found At Nerve Cell Connections In The Brain Date published: May 19, 2000 2. Drug Psychotherapy Combo Found Highly Effective in Depression Study Date published: May 24, 2000 3. Suckling Behavior of Newborn Rats Can Be Manipulated Through Use of Scents, Date published: May 29, 2000 4. Study Opens Doors to Significant Changes in Medications for Schizophrenia Date published: June 16, 2000 5. New Scientific Theory May Change How Treatments for Inherited Neurodegenerative Disease Are Developed Date published: July 13, 2000 6. Compound That Switches Off Appetite in Mice Discovered by Hopkins Scientists Date published: June 30, 2000 7. Canadian Scientists Find More Homosexuals L ...
Free research essays on topics related to: disorders, psychological disorder, psychology today, chronic depression, therapy
Comfort Of Our Own Homes - 842 words
Violence is very wide spread in society today and is growing at an alarming rate among our children. Everyday we seem to hear of children beating on one another, ganging up on the elderly, invading homes, and even murdering people. One has to question how much effect different sorts of media have on our children. From the time we are very young we can be exposed to seeing and hearing horrible acts of violence on the television and radio, and through video games. Sadly, I believe this is where it all starts - in the comfort of our own homes. Over and over again children watch violent programs and play video games with the goal of killing others. Eventually many of them find it amusing and enj ...
Free research essays on topics related to: comfort, youth violence, young people, most dangerous, enjoyable
Various Psychology Disorders And Related Theories - 1,008 words
Anxiety Disorder Psychoanalysts believe that anxiety disorders are caused by internal mental conflicts often involving sexual impulses. These impulses cause an overuse of the ego's defense system that fails over time. This shows that the unacceptable impulses the ego has blocked are the generalized anxiety disorders. These blocked impulses cause an unconscious state of apprehension for which the person does not know the cause of. Phobias, however, occur if the person sets the cause of the anxiety to a certain object, or situation, which they can more easily avoid than the actual source of anxiety. Panic disorders and agoraphobia are caused by separation anxiety, mainly separation from parent ...
Free research essays on topics related to: anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder, compulsive disorder, disorders, dissociative disorders, mood disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder