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Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra - 1,642 words
founded in 1895, gave its first concert the following year under the direction of Frederic Archer. Victor Herbert was the chief conductor from 1898 to 1904; he was succeeded by Emil Paur (190410). The orchestra was then disbanded. It was revived in 1926, and over the next decade it was led by Elias Breeskin (192730) and Antonio Modarelli (193037). The orchestra was reorganized by Otto Klemperer in 1937. Fritz Reiner was chief conductor from 1938 to 1948, followed by William Steinberg (195276), Andr Previn (197684), Lorin Maazel (198495), and Mariss Jansons (1995). Since 1971 the orchestra has performed in Heinz Hall, the renovated Loews Penn Theater (built 1927). To truly understand Pittsbur ...
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Richard Strauss - 870 words
Richard Strauss was born June 11, 1864 in Munich, Germany. The German composer-conductor is best known for his operas and tone poems. His father was Franz Strauss, one of Germany's leading horn players. Strauss's musical career began at the age of 4 when he learned how to play the piano. By the age of 6 he was composing and by the age of 11 he was studying theory and composition [5, par. 1870]. At the age of 20, he made his conducting debut in Munich. This led him to the Meiningen Court Orchestra. After a month there he was in charge. In 1886, Strauss became third conductor at the Munich Opera. A second conductorship at Weimar enabled him to astonish the world with the performance of his ton ...
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Beethoven - 446 words
Ludwig van Beethoven was one of the world's most famous composers. He was born in 1770 and died in 1827. He was born December 16, 1770 in Bonn Germany. His early musical talent was subjected to the discipline of his father a singer in the court chapel. His father was an alcoholic and so the young Beethoven began supporting his family as a court musician. He studied under several famous composers - Christian Neefe, and Austrian Joseph Haydn. He would have studied under Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, but Mozart died just before he could travel to Vienna to study under this master. In Vienna Beethoven dazzled the rich with his piano improvisations. His musical style often challenged the "norms" of th ...
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Mozart - 4,097 words
"For the respect his works have commanded of musicians, and the popularity they have enjoyed among wider audiences, he is probably the most admired composer in the history of Western music." With this appraisal the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, published in 1980, begins its magisterial article on Beethoven. More than a decade later one might not apply this statement to the Teutonic Goliath but to the David of Mozart. Not only is this year (1991) the bicentennial of Mozart's death, it also comes at a time when his pristine classical image has become the preferred taste over Beethoven's more extroverted expression. Turn your channel to PBS, where Hugh Downs or Peter Ustinov is n ...
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Mozart - 4,138 words
... r marriage was trying to persuade Leopold of her attributes: "But before I cease to plague you with my chatter, I must make you better acquainted with the character of Constanze. She is not ugly, but at the same time far from beautiful. Her whole beauty consists in two little black eyes and a pretty figure. She has no wit, but she has enough common sense to enable her to fulfil her duties as a wife and mother. It is a downright lie that she is inclined to be extravagant. On the contrary, she is accustomed to be shabbily dressed, for the little that her mother has been able to do for her children, she has done for the two others, but never for Constanze. True, she would like to be neatly ...
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Piano Sonata In The Classical Era - 1,677 words
The Piano Sonata in the Classical Period The piano sonata was an important part of music during the Classical period . It characterizes the Classical era's new trend of musical form. Originally, the sonata was made up of several dance movements, but then in the Classical era, it changed to a fast-slow movement style, each of the movements being composed in one of the forms popular during the Classical period. These consisted of sonata-allegro, ternary, rondo, and theme and variations. Down through history many things characteristic of the sonata have remained the same: "most sonatas have been instrumental music, without voice parts, absolute music without program; concert or divisional music ...
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Weber Carl Maria Von - 897 words
Carl Maria von Weber, a cousin of Mozart's wife Constanze, was trained as a musician from his childhood, the son of a versatile musician who had founded his own travelling theatre company. He made a favourable impression as a pianist and then as a music director, notably in the opera-houses of Prague and Dresden. Here he introduced various reforms and was a pioneer of the craft of conducting without the use of violin or keyboard instrument. As a composer he won a lasting reputation with the first important Romantic German opera, Der Freischtz. The opera Der Freischtz (The Marksman), first staged in Berlin in 1821, blends many of the ingredients typical of German Romanticism, simple peasant v ...
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Mozart - 1,706 words
the son of Leopold Mozart, Kapellmeister to the Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg, and much the reason behind's Wolfgang's education. By the age of three he could play the piano, and he was composing by the time he was five. Mozart's elder sister Maria Anna was also a gifted keyboard player, and in 1762 their father took the two prodigies on a short performing tour, of the courts at Vienna and Munich. Encouraged by their reception, they embarked the next year on a longer tour, including two weeks at Versailles, where the children enchanted Louis XV. In 1764 they arrived in London. Here Mozart wrote his first three symphonies, under the influence of Johann Christian Bach, youngest son of Johann S ...
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Beethoven: The Greatest Composer - 872 words
Ludwig van Beethoven was, and remains today, an influential figure in the history of classical music. Perhaps no other composer in history wrote music of such inspiring power and expressiveness. His influence on the last 150 years of music is unequalled. Beethoven was born in Bonn, Germany in 1770. His father, a music enthusiast, dreamed of molding his son into the next Mozart. Beethoven never showed the impressive characteristics of Mozart, but he was unusually talented, learning the piano, organ and violin at a very early age. At 14, he was already skilled enough on the organ to receive a professional appointment (Beethoven). He held positions as an assistant organist in the electoral chap ...
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Russian Culture: A Look At Its Religion And Art - 1,234 words
Mankind has always aspired to be the largest, biggest, strongest, highest, essentially the best in everything. This is not untrue for the Russians who have had the largest country in the world for quite some time now. Russia covers one-sixth of the entire worlds land mass and has had a significant part in modern history. However, in order to understand why a country has become what it is now, one must look at its culture. A countrys culture not only reflects its citizens now but also its history and future. Many things reflect Russias diverse culture but two main things are art and the church. Like many other countries, the church has played a great role in the formation of Russia. Russias m ...
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Romanticism In Germany - 1,370 words
Romanticism was a European cultural revolt against authority, tradition, and Classical order (the Enlightenment); this movement permeated Western Civilization over a period that approximately dated from the late 18th to the mid-19th century. In general, Romanticism is that attitude or state of mind that focuses on the individual, the subjective, the irrational, the creative, and the emotional. These characteristics of Romanticism most often took form in subject matters such as history, national endeavor, and the sublime beauties of nature. According to historians, the mind-set of the Romantics was completely contradictory to the straightforwardness, impartiality, and serenity of 18th century ...
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Frederic Chopin - 1,442 words
Frederic Francois Chopin was born in Zelazowa-Wola, near Warsaw, Poland. No one is exactly sure about his birth date; he was born on February 22 or March 1, 1810. He was very gifted when it came to music and was playing the piano in public by the time he was eight years old. Soon after that he was composing music! When he was about sixteen, he studied at the Warsaw Conservatory and went to school there from 1826 to 1829. He left Poland in 1830 and settled in Paris in 1831. He lived in Paris for the rest of his life, except for some traveling. There he became well known in the fashionable salons, even though he barely ever performed in public. The first person that Chopin fell in love with wa ...
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Biography Of James Galoway - 482 words
James Galway was born in Belfast, Northern Ireland on December 8, 1939. As a child, he began playing the penny whistle and the mouth organ before switching to flute. At the age of ten, he was the winner of all three classes of the Irish Flute Championships, which earned him a BBC radio session, as well as a spot in the Belfast Youth Orchestra. He continued studying the flute at the Royal College of Music and the Guildhall School of Music, and eventually landed a scholarship at the Paris Conservatory. He began his career at the Sadler Wells Opera and the Royal Opera Convent Garden which led to positions with the BBC Symphony Orchestra where he played the piccolo, the London Symphony Orchestra ...
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Paganini - 1,075 words
... Paganini's artistry in composition and performance were tinted by "rose-colored memories". There is nothing "rose-colored" in the genius of such contemporaries of Paganini as Schubert, Mendelssohn, Liszt, Chopin, Schumann, Berlioz and others, whose reports claim his total mastery as a composer and genius as a performer in absolute terms. It is important to understand Paganini's music in the context of his cultural heritage and his enthusiastic adherence to traditional compositional values. His studies, in addition to violin, included guitar, counterpoint, music history, theory, harmony, and orchestration. His compositional gifts were widely recognized from an early age, as is reflected b ...
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Beethoven - 449 words
Beethoven, Ludwig van (1770-1827), German composer, generally considered one of the greatest composers in the Western tradition. Born in Bonn, Beethoven went to Vienna in 1792 to study under Austrian composer Joseph Haydn. In Vienna, he dazzled the aristocracy with his piano improvisations and became a successful freelance composer. In the first decade of the 19th century Beethoven expanded the musical language bequeathed by Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and revealed his complete assimilation of the Viennese classical style. Beethoven's fame reached its zenith during these years, but a hearing impairment he had first noted in 1798 steadily worsened. He performed in public only rarely, ma ...
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Paul Hindemith - 1,325 words
Paul was born in the German town of Hanau in 1895, on December Sixteen. We might assume that Hindemith felt a pull in the musical direction from a very early age; Paul's father was a painter and did not want his son becoming a musician, so our little composer-to-be ran away at the age of 11, and started his own life. Paul taught himself the violin and viola, and began earning his living by playing at Cafes and other such establishments. Eventually, Hindemith learned the rudiments of all the instruments that mattered, so he could play them at least passably-- but he was surely a virtuoso at his viola and viola d'amore. Eventually, Hindemith ended up at the Frankfurt Conservatory, where he stu ...
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