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Ayasofya - 4,943 words
... misphere set on the larger circle is intersected by vertical planes rising from the sides of the square, forming four arches. A horizontal plane is then passed through the hemisphere at the tops of these arches, providing a ring on which is built the dome, which has a diameter equal to the circle inscribed within the square. The pendentives are spherical triangles, the remaining portions of the first, or outer, hemisphere. At Hagia Sophia, two opposing arches on the central square open into semidomes, each pierced by three smaller radial semidomes, forming an oblong volume 31 m (100 ft) wide by 80 m (260 ft) long. The central dome rises out of this series of smaller spherical surfaces. A ...
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Joseph Turner - 301 words
Turner, Joseph Mallord William (1775-1851), English landscape painter, renowned for his vibrant and dramatic treatment of natural light and atmospheric effects in land and marine subjects, and whose work had a direct influence on the development of impressionism. Turner was born in London and studied at the Royal Academy of Arts. At the age of 15 he exhibited his first watercolor at the academy. He would continue to show his work there until 1850. He was elected an associate of the academy in 1799 and a full member three years later. He traveled widely throughout his career, extensively touring England and Scotland and later France, Switzerland, and Italy. In 1807 he became professor of pers ...
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A Historiography Of - 2,581 words
... s, meaning a bowl." There are three likely possibilities for what the Grail represented that are supported by evidence: "The Grail as Celtic talisman, as fertility symbol, as Christian relic"28 Despite this, the actual of the Grail and the quest for it has been one of the primary attractions in these legends. The Christian interpretation is that the Grail was originally the cup used at the Last Supper, with which Joseph of Arimathea caught the blood of Christ on the cross. However, Loomis says this is only one of the aspects. In one story of the Grail, Chrestien de Troyes' Conte del Graal, there is no Christian symbolism associated with the Grail. In other parts of this cycle, the Grail ...
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Mary Cassatt - 1,171 words
Mary Cassatt was a strong and opinionated feminist, as well as a talented artist who changed her styles significantly through as her interests changed. A. Schooling----Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in Philadelphia IV. Cassatts Influences and Her Changes in Style 3. impressionistic styles and theories 2. examples of people who were part of the movement B. Japanese (drypoint) and its theories B. Why she painted the subjects she did VII. The Publics Opinion of Her-----not well appreciated back home VIII. Cassatts View on Womens Issues and How They Relate to Her Art A. Competitive and self assured feminist; aware of difficulties she would face as a woman artist and was persistent in the face ...
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Picasso - 1,238 words
Picasso, Pablo Ruiz y (1881-1973), Spanish painter and sculptor, is considered one of the greatest artist of the 20th century. He was a inventor of forms, innovator of styles and techniques, a master of various media, and one of the most prolific artists in history. He created more than 20,000 works. Picasso was Born in Mlaga on October 25, 1881, he was the son of Jos Ruiz Blasco, an art teacher, and Mara Picasso y Lopez. Until 1898 he always used his father's name, Ruiz, and his mother's maiden name, Picasso, to sign his pictures. After about 1901 he dropped Ruiz and used his mother's maiden name to sign his pictures. At the age of 10 he made his first paintings, and at 15 he performed bril ...
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Transvestitism - 986 words
In the last few decades, there has been a rapid change in social attitude towards so-called sexual problems. There has been a call for the freedom to live in the style of which one chooses, so long as no one else is harmed in the process. One area that appears little understood, however, is transvestitism, or cross-dressing. In order to gain some knowledge about this phenomenon, there are many aspects of transvestitism that should be examined, some being: history, societal views, the gay versus straight issue, and women dressing as men. Transvestitism has a long history, ranging from mythical figures to medieval saints who cross-dressed; from the many instances of berdache in anthropological ...
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Renoir - 871 words
Pierre Auguste Renoir was a late nineteen- century French impressionist painter whose works were often ridiculed throughout his life, because of his sensuous celebration of women and nature. He was considered to be one of the most famous artists of his generation, due to his representation sensuality and pleasure in his paintings. When his paintings were first exhibited, they were considered to be shocking and culturally taboo, however after time society became more accepting of Renoir's style and his work overall. "The Apple Seller" painted in 1890, which is now showcased at the Cleveland Museum of Art. The painting depicts a commercial transaction between a peasant woman and an upper class ...
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Probabilty - 1,863 words
Probability is the branch of mathematics that deals with measuring or determining the likelihood that an event or experiment will have a particular outcome. Probability is based on the study of permutations and combinations and is also necessary for statistics.17th-century French mathematicians Blaise Pascal and Pierre de Fermat is usually given credit to the development of probability, but mathematicians as early as Gerolamo Cardano had made important contributions to its development. Mathematical probability began when people tried to answer certain questions that was in games of chance, such as how many times a pair of dice must be thrown before the chance that a six will appear is 50-50. ...
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Nostradamus - 990 words
Nostradamus was a physician and astrologer that lived during the fourteenth century. His insights in to modern day occurrences have astounded millions, and it leaves them wondering about the translations of his prophecies that have not occurred yet, particularly his perspicacity about the end of the world. Nostradamus was born in Saint Remi, in southern France, and was raised as a Roman Catholic. He studied medicine in Montpellier, and started a practice about 1525. Soon after, he began to treat victims of the plague in communities of southern France. Nostradamus used innovative methods of treatment, and his success in curing extremely ill patients earned him a reputation as a specially gift ...
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Existentialism - 1,628 words
Existentialism, philosophical movement or tendency, emphasizing individual existence, freedom, and choice, that influenced many diverse writers in the 19th and 20th centuries. Because of the diversity of positions associated with existentialism, the term is impossible to define precisely. Certain themes common to virtually all existentialist writers can, however, be identified. The term itself suggests one major theme: the stress on concrete individual existence and, consequently, on subjectivity, individual freedom, and choice. Most philosophers since Plato have held that the highest ethical good is the same for everyone; insofar as one approaches moral perfection, one resembles other moral ...
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Europe - 4,478 words
I spent my second night in a youth hostel in Paris last night. I arrived in Paris around 6:00am local time two days ago. The flight from LAX to Orly airport was ten about hours long. It wasn't so bad, though. There was nobody sitting next to me and a nice, elderly French lady two seats away. The charter flight that I flew on was run by a French airline, and it seemed that the majority of the passengers were French-speaking. When we were taking off from LA, all of the announcements were in both French and English, but the frequency of the English announcements seemed to decline as we got farther and farther away from the United States. Customs was amazingly simple. I breezed right though, and ...
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Should You Obey An Unjust Law - 1,133 words
According to the theory of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, 18th century French political philosopher, in a democratic society the state represents the general will of the citizens, and that in obeying its laws each citizen is pursuing his own real interests. Thus, in an ideal state, laws express the general will. An individual who disagrees with a law must be failing to look at things from the moral standpoint. Rousseau is talking about an ideal state where laws express peoples general will, a will that aims at the common good. But the question is: are we living in an ideal state and do all the laws of our land express the common will of the people and should we obey all the laws even if they are unj ...
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Chaucer - 1,060 words
Geoffrey Chaucer led a busy official life, as an esquire of the royal court, as the administrator of the customs for the port of London, as a participant in important diplomatic missions, and in a variety of other official duties. Before William Shakespeare, Geoffrey Chaucer was the distinguished English poet, and still retains the position as the most significant poet to write in Middle English. Chaucer was born in 1342, but historians are uncertain about his exact date of birth. Geoffrey's well-to-do parents, John Chaucer and Agnes Copton, possessed several buildings in the vintage quarter in London. Not much is known about Geoffrey's school career, but most historians feel that he was flu ...
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Gypsies - 791 words
Our history books are full of ethnic and religious groups who have been mistreated. However, these books say very little, if anything at all about the Gypsies. In this paper I am going to discuss a few of the many hardships and prejudices that Gypsies have faced, and continue to face today. Throughout time Gypsies have suffered disproportionately from poverty, unemployment, interethnic violence, discrimination, illiteracy, and disease (Lewy 1). One may wonder exactly who these people are who seem to be the targets of so much violence and hostility. Well, the Gypsies are an inclusive group, they have their own language and they are nomadic, which means that they travel around in clans, usuall ...
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The Religious Attacks Made By "tartuffe" - 1,042 words
Moliere (whose real name was Jean-Baptiste Poquelin) rocked the 17th century French world with his comedy "Tartuffe" in 1664. Although, religious factions kept the play banned from theatres from 1664-1669, "Tartuffe" emerged from the controversy as one of the all-time great comedies. Tartuffe is a convincing religious hypocrite. He is a parasite who is sucking Orgon, the rich trusting father, for all he is worth. Orgon does not realize that Tartuffe is a phony, and caters to his every whim. For instance, he reneges on his promise to let his daughter Mariane, marry Valere. Instead he demands that she wed Tartuffe, whom she despises. He also banishes his own son, Damis, from his house for spea ...
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Impact Of The Automobile From 1900-1945 - 1,094 words
The impact of the automobile between 1900 through 1945 was immense. It paved the way for a future dependency on the automobile. To paint a better picture, imagine life without an automobile. Everyday life would be dull, cumbersome, and tedious. An individuals mobility would be very limited. Basically, the life without an automobile could not be fathomed. The importance of the automobile is often taken for granite. Society may not know what appreciate the impact of the automobile and effects it has created. The impact of the automobile had both positive and negative effects on America between 1900 through 1945. Automobile provided an outlet for individuals and spread the freedom of travel amo ...
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The History Behind Shakespeare Writing Hamlet - 1,073 words
The most influential writer in all of English literature, William Shakespeare was born in 1564 to a successful middle-class glove-maker in Stratford-upon-Avon, England. Shakespeare attended grammar school, but his formal education proceeded no further. In 1582 he married an older woman, Anne Hathaway, and had three children with her. Around 1590 he left his family behind and traveled to London to work as an actor and playwright. Public and critical success quickly followed, and Shakespeare eventually became the most popular playwright in England and part-owner of the Globe Theater. His career bridged the reigns of Elizabeth I (ruled 1558-1603) and James I (ruled 1603-1625), and he was a favo ...
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Dracula - Most Influential Vampire Still Entertaining - 975 words
In 1897, Bram Stoker's "Dracula" was published in Great Britain. It was one of many Gothic horror novels of the day and, although popular, wasn't considered to be meaningful or timeless in any way. Yet, over a century later, the book has never gone out of print. Its title character, Count Dracula, is the quintessential vampire of Western literature and has inspired more movies than any novel. "Dracula" is sufficiently multi-faceted that writers and directors of film have been able to adapt it for their constantly changing times and purposes. In 1922, F.W. Murnau found in "Dracula" his Freudian-expressionist masterpiece "Nosferatu". Nearly a decade later, Dracula was transformed into Bela Lug ...
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Recycling Candles - 1,058 words
One of the earliest inventions in human history is the Candle. A source of light, usually made of wax (tallow was widely used in the past, which is the processed fat of cattle and sheep). The wax is melted then molded, and contains a wick that is burned to give light. Or the wick itself would be dipped in melted wax several times. These days, candles are mainly used for decorating rooms and celebrations. The art of candlemaking has advanced rapidly since Chevreul a nineteenth century French chemist, produced stearic acid. A substance obtained by separating fatty acids from glycerin fat. And later the discovery of paraffin, that is distilled from wood, coal or petroleum. These two substances ...
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