To What Extent Did Solidarity Contribute To Undermining Communism In Poland? - 2,176 words
Communism in Poland was self-consciously the workers-state, largely responsible for creating the modern Polish working class through industrialization and raising expectations of equality and of higher living standards. It is widely believed that Solidarity undermined Communism in Poland, partly by disrupting the Communist program of production through strikes, but more by transferring the trust and loyalty of the Polish people from Communism to itself. The supposed "adversaries" of Polish workers - the church, the officer class, the national leadership - were in fact combined by Solidarity as allies of the workers to "break the resistance" of Communism to reform. What the state never apprec ...
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To What Extent Did Solidarity Contribute To Undermining Communism In Poland? - 2,205 words
... aking. One has to remember that the Cold War dominated many plans, with the drive for eastern superiority governing this sector. However, many of the policies were ill thought out with little foresight, with historians such as McCauley arguing this as a key trait of Khrushchev . An example of this lack of planning could be seen in the late fifties, when the president ordered the quantity of beef produced to increase. Farmers promptly went out and slaughtered every cow in sight. This obviously increased short-term yields, but drastically cut long term ones. This highlights how policy was hastily made, with little thought, the only goal being to better the western output. One has to argue ...
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Documentary Review - 618 words
The documentary I watched is about Thaipusam festival. I watched it on National Geographic Channel and was amazed to discover the meaning, the process and the traditions and practices of Thaipusam. It was interesting to watch the procession yet at the same time learn more about it in detail. Every January/February, depending upon the lunar month - on a full-moon day in the Tamil month of Thai, the Hindus will celebrate Thaipusam in honour of their Hindu God, Lord Subramaniam (sometimes referred to as Lord Murugan) who is a son of the Hindu God Shiva. He is believed to represent virtue, youth and power. As mentioned in the documentary, Thaipusam is celebrated in Singapore and also in Malaysia ...
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Slavery - 826 words
African Americans resisted the practice of slavery and the trade of slavery from its inception in the United Stated in the early1600s to its end in the middle 1800s. They resisted it in the fields and in the big house; they resisted by organized rebellions; and they resisted by direct, spontaneous acts of courage. For their freedom slaves killed and were killed. They ran away, and their masters ran after them. They fought and died. They also survived. The conditions of slaves that survived varied. How well they were treated depended on their owner and the type of work they did. The field hands had it the hardest. They worked the longest hours and lived under the worst conditions. They had li ...
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European Union - 1,792 words
1. Winston Churchill took the first step towards a European Union in 1946; he called for a "United States of Europe". This Union was going to be very strong, and it has developed some very important decisions since 1946. In 1948, the Congress of Europe brought all the European movements together in The Hague. The first really big change that EU accomplished took place in 1950. The Treaty of Rome was signed and that was the beginning of EEC, the European Economic Community. The Common Market included six countries: Germany, Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands. These countries decided in 1959 to reduce the customs between them. Another milestone for EU took place in 1979, t ...
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The Federal Reserve System - 1,508 words
I would like to start this paper by giving a clear definition of the federal reserve system: The Federal Reserve System most well known as the Fed is the central banking system and monetary authority of the United States. The Fed is made up of regional Federal Reserve banks and the Federal Reserve Board of Governors, which their main responsibility is to supervise and to examine the state-chartered member banks, also to regulate banks holding companies, and finally to be responsible for the conduct of the monetary policy. Furthermore, some of the most important duties of the Fed are to keep full employment and to maintain a low state of inflation (CPI= 2%). In order to clearly understand thi ...
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Interracial Children - 1,856 words
Proposal: Would there be a benefit for interracial children having a multiracial box on any application as means of identifying interracial children. Despite growing numbers, public images of interracial people - who have been part of the American landscape since the first Africans reached America's shores. Confusion surrounding race stems from the illogic used to define it. Slavery laws and social practices set a precedent - which survives to this day. Traditionally, "White America" as a whole has disenfranchised a people who appears or by definition has physical characteristics that challenge their hue as "White", today, this challenge is more evident than ever as marriages of different ra ...
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History Of The Euro - 2,283 words
... ational currencies but will also carry out transactions in Euros. All money-based transactions in the economy (wages and salaries, pensions, bank balances, etc.) will be denominated in Euros. References to national currencies in contracts will be converted into Euros without any other changes in terms and conditions. In other words, the principle of continuity of contracts will apply in full. Public administrations in the countries taking part in EMU will also implement a coordinated switch to the Euro for their transactions with the public. The definitive changeover to the single currency should be completed by July 1, 2002 at the latest with final withdrawal of the national currencies. ...
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Indiaa Political Outlook - 1,718 words
Politics play a crucial role in the origin and growth and even decay of cities in India. It also plays a great role in general urban development, decay and renewal. In most cases these policies are sponsored by the government, therefor, they obviously play a key role in the development of cities. In the following paragraphs I will describe different political aspects of the growth of an Indian city and how the government participated. I will also discuss the overall foreign policy of India. Politics played a crucial role in the origin and growth of cities since the beginning of humanity. These two developments led to the appearance of political authority. The agricultural revolution itself m ...
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Magic Realism - 1,536 words
... o school for, you're stripping me of it, I told my aunt.... The humiliation I had to go through, going into that man's kitchen.... Now going up to that jail.... Anything to humiliate me. All the things you wanted me to escape by going to school. Years ago, Professor Antoine told me that if I stayed here, they were going to break me down to the nigger I was born to be. But he didn't tell me that my aunt would help them do it. Grant tells Vivian how Miss Emma needs a memory of Jefferson standing as a man. Vivian can not understand where Grant is coming from. We black men...stay here in the South and are broken, or we run away and leave them alone to look after the children and themselves. ...
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Slavery Going On Today In World - 1,126 words
Slavery is an issue Americans wish is still apart of our past. However it is still taking place in many countries around the world. One of these many countries is Sudan. Sudan is a fairly large country located in northeast Africa. In Sudan women and children are still the result of slavery. In order to understand the current conditions of Sudan, the history is very important. In 632, the beginning of Islam brought many positive things to the country such as political unity and economic growth. However, as early as 1839 the northern Arabs began raiding the villages taking African Americans into slavery. The slaves were then sold in world slave markets as well as being domestic slaves. In 1881 ...
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Red Baron - 521 words
Manfred von Richthofen remains one of the greatest legends of aviation. Born in a part of Germany that is now Poland, Richthofen was the son of an aristocratic Prussian family. A far better athlete than scholar, he wanted to become a calvary officer, but the changing nature of war had eliminated the need for calvary, so, he turned to the "new calvary," aviation. When World War I began, Richthofen joined the Fliegertruppe as an observer in order to get into combat more quickly. After just 24 hours of flight training, he made his first solo flight. He crashed trying to land. By 1916, he was a combat pilot, and scored his first confirmed victory on September 17. On November 23 of the same year, ...
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Zionism - 866 words
For at least two thousand years Jews were dispersed all over the world. Some of them inevitably assimilated with other nations. Yet many kept their identity as a nation by staying loyal to their religious faith and by their desire to survive as one people preserving common racial features and cultural traditions. Some European anti-Jewish tendencies and the suspicious attitude to Jews in oriental cultures contributed to their solidarity. For centuries Jews cherished the idea of returning to their native land. But it was only in the 19th century that the idea developed into a political movement called Zionism. At first the movement was not very popular among Jews. There were supporters, but m ...
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History Of Light Infantry - 1,785 words
For a long time peace was understood in negative fashion, Kendrick Pritchett in the introduction to the book The Greek State at War points out that in order to write history of Greek Warfare one would require a knowledge of many aspects of Greek life. The would-be investigator would have to be familiar with terrain in the case of any given battle, have an acquaintance with the archaeological artifacts of various types, close familiarity with the written sources, and most important, an understanding of the general economic picture. He would also need some insight into ancient religion and acquaintance with military and naval procedures and strategy. There is a definite truth about the stateme ...
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One Day In The Life Of Ivan Denisovich - 1,209 words
Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr Isaevich. One day in the life of Ivan Denisovich, New YorkPress, 1963. The novel, A Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich is intentionally not sensational. It is an expose of Stalinist labor camps, and of the Soviet system generally, but it accomplishes this through understatement and indirection. This work, however, is much more than a political indictment. Its power derives from its depiction of a man retaining his humanity under inhumane conditions. Shukov is not a heroic figure, but he wins our admiration for his cleverness, his endurance, and his simple integrity. This novel also shows a nice cross section of how soviet life was. It shows how citizens in Russia real ...
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Trc - 1,715 words
Racial segregation and the supremacy of whites had been traditionally accepted in South Africa prior to 1948, but in the general election of that year, Daniel F. Malan officially included the policy of apartheid in the Afrikaner Nationalist party platform, bringing his party to power for the first time. Although most whites acquiesced in the policy, there was bitter and sometimes bloody strife over the degree and stringency of its implementation. 2 The purpose of apartheid was separation of the races: not only of whites from nonwhites, but also of nonwhites from each other, and, among the Africans (called Bantu in South Africa), of one group from another. In addition to the Africans, who con ...
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The Power Of The Fist - 1,163 words
* Black Power is a phrase that has instilled both pride and hope *into the souls of black people, while simultaneously striking fear into *the hearts of whites. 'No two words in contemporary American society have *been more controversial or misunderstood than Black Power' (Fager, cover). *This "misunderstanding" is what made the Black Power Movement so receptive *among African-Americans, but threatening to whites. After *African-Americans became disenchanted with the Civil Rights Movement, a *new concept rose to the forefront of black ideology. The Black Power *Movement began to reshape black consciousness during the mid-sixties, and *left an everlasting impression on American society. Accor ...
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Benjamin Franklin - 1,318 words
Benjamin Franklin is unmistakably the most resplendent figure in American history. Starting out as an apprentice, Franklin was to become a renowned printer, a great statesman, and an innovator always trying to find ways to improve his community. But how could this peasant apprentice become such an influential man in a large-scale society such as Philadelphia? This was the question that baffled and worried many aristocrats of the early eighteenth century. For Franklin was to become a household name and soon an inspiration to all that sought freedom from the wont class system. Franklin symbolized the classic clich of rags to riches vividly throughout his lifetime. His resilience and genius tru ...
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Benjamin Franklin - 1,285 words
... udonym in order to remain anonymous. Hence, Richard Saunders Philomath is created by Franklin and predestined to write his almanac. Benjamin Franklins almanac was a tremendous success; no other book in the colonies sold more copies, except the Bible (Doren 148). With success comes recognition and Franklin was most certainly recognized within the colonies. Year after year, Franklin packed the almanac with his sayings and rearranged proverbs. Franklins Biographer Milton Meltzer says, Franklin was adept at taking other peoples lines and giving them a wry twist that enhanced their flavor and drove home their meaning (90). For instance, an old proverb goes God restorth health and physicians h ...
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Prohibition - 1,349 words
... , perhaps the largest social conflict over Prohibition occurred with the working classes and labor unions: central to the support of Prohibition was the idea that alcohol and alcoholism caused working class poverty. Labor unions, on the other hand, tended to think the reversethat alcoholism was a result of working class poverty. Instead of eliminating alcohol in the hope that it would improve the conditions of the working, labor forces hoped to improve working conditions and worker standing to eliminate the need for alcohol (Drescher 36). In addition, labor forces were concerned about the effect of closing saloons on working class morale, as saloons had been centers of community for the ...
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