Spartan Warfare - 1,221 words
In the 7th Century BC a new era of warfare strategy evolved. Before this new strategy, foot soldiers known as hoplites engaged in battle in the form of one mob for each army which on the command of their generals runs at each other and proceeds to hack blindly at the enemy with little to no direction other then to kill the enemy in front of them. This proved to be very messy and the tide of battle depended mostly on emotion and size of an army. In the name of strategy and organization, the phalanx was developed. A phalanx is simply defined as a line formation with its width significantly larger then its depth. The depth of the phalanx is a variable which some suggest was decided by the army ...
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How Athen Took Over Leadership Of Sparta After The Persian Wars - 1,482 words
HOW ATHENS TOOK OVER LEADERSHIP OF SPARTA AFTER THE PERSIAN WARS During the period of Greek history from the last years of the Persian Wars till the beginning of the First Peloponnesian War, the primacy of Sparta declined whileAthens was gaining increased influence in Greece. The Athenian, Thucydides (460-400 BC), one among few contemporary historians, left behind the most creditable records about this period. Although he did not give enough documentation for many events he described, his Histories remained the main resource of the facts from that time. In consideration of the fact that he was an Athenian and a participant of the Athenian army, future historians could not entirely count upon ...
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History Of Light Infantry - 1,785 words
For a long time peace was understood in negative fashion, Kendrick Pritchett in the introduction to the book The Greek State at War points out that in order to write history of Greek Warfare one would require a knowledge of many aspects of Greek life. The would-be investigator would have to be familiar with terrain in the case of any given battle, have an acquaintance with the archaeological artifacts of various types, close familiarity with the written sources, and most important, an understanding of the general economic picture. He would also need some insight into ancient religion and acquaintance with military and naval procedures and strategy. There is a definite truth about the stateme ...
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Humanitiesgrecoroman Culture - 1,174 words
Aristophanes was a "craft" comedy poet in the fourth century B.C. during the time of the Peloponnesian War. Aristophanes' usual style was to be too satirical, and suggesting the outlandish. He shows little mercy when mocking Socrates and his "new-fangled ideas" which were most likely designed to destroy the cohesiveness of society and lead to The most absurd and humorous of Aristophanes' comedies are those in which the main characters, the heroes of the story, are women. Smart One of the most famous of Aristophanes' comedies depicting powerfully effectual women is the Lysistrata, named after the female lead character of the play. It portrays Athenian Lysistrata and the women of Athens teamin ...
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Greek Civilization - 1,584 words
... s to indicate relative peace under some form of central authority, Mycenaean civilization was characterized by independent city-states such as Corinth, Pylos, Tyrins and, the most powerful of them all, Mycenae. The Mycenaeans were closed within massive walls on easily defensible hilltops. The ruins of Mycenae walls were termed Cyclopean, because they were thought to have been built by the like-named giants. The Mycenaeans most impressive legacy is magnificent gold jewelry and ornaments, most of which can be seen in the National Archaeological Museum in Athens. The Mycenaeans wrote in what is called Linear B, which has been deciphered as an early form of Greek (Demand 34). Examples of Lin ...
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Aristophanis - 567 words
By most accounts Aristophanes was the greatest comic writer of his day. On his shoulders alone rests an entire age of comedy. By the time Aristophanes began to write his comedies, the people of Athens were increasingly demoralized by the ongoing conflicts of the Peloponnesian War. That is why in most of his plays there are tones of apprehension and grief. Lysistrata was written twenty-one years into the Peloponnesian War. Although the play is light-hearted, it was written out of the writers grief over the thousand of men who died in the terrible defeat that the Athenians suffered in Syracuse. The play begins in a public square in Athens. There Lysistrata awaits the other women to explain to ...
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Hippocrates - 703 words
Hippocrates, the central historical figure in Greek medicine, was born in Kos between 470-460 B.C. He was born of an ancestor of Aselepios, the son of Apollo, named Heraklides. He greatened his education by traveling. He traveled often and widely before he settled in Kos to practice and teach medicine. Hippocrates taught in Athens and worked on squaring the circle and also worked on duplicating the cube. He grew far in these areas and although his work is not lost, it must have contained much of what Euclid later included in Books One and Two of the Elements. He believed that experience and mind with speech are the criteria of the knowledge. And according to Hippocrates, the diseases are not ...
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Plato - 1,212 words
Throughout history there have been many philosophers that have made great impacts on the students for many years. One philosopher in particular that has made a tremendous impact on the youth of the world is a man named Plato. Plato is one of the worlds most famous writers, and is still being taught to this day. People ask why this man is so important and why he should be still studied today when he is something of the past; well I will help them see in my paper just why he is so important to this nation. This argument will be supported by three different categories; one a biography showing how important he was to man and number two is about how something or someone during the time in which h ...
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Emergence Of Nation States - 1,954 words
The evolution of the state system has marked various significant events in the history of mankind. These episodes and years of war and battle for supremacy, freedom, religion and pride have caused many lives to be lost for the price of having realized the genuine type of a state. Nation and state are two concepts that are very confusing and sometimes both concepts are mistakenly perceived as having the same meaning. It is therefore necessary to provide a good definition on state and nation in order to draw a line or a distinction on both terms. "The term nation is an ethnic one, based upon culture, common heritage, language, and sense of identity. A state is a body of people politically orga ...
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Ancient Greece - 825 words
Why should one study the Ancient Greeks? There exist almost countless contributions that Greek culture has made to western society in the areas of art, literature, philosophy, drama, architecture and politics. Lasting visions of thought and inspiring intellect helped shaped today's western culture with notions of democracy and personal freedoms. Greek scientists made revolutionary discoveries in medicine, mathematics, physics, and astronomy. It was the Greeks who, through philosophy, instilled thoughtful exploration of the mind and consciousness. The beauty of their artwork and the precision of their statues reflected human development and expression of individuality. The most important reas ...
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Architecture - 829 words
Architecture represents the time period or culture for which it was built. The Berlin article discussed some interesting details concerning the rebuilding of their culture. There were many famous architect who had different views on how Berlin should be built in order restore the culture of the past. "This is Berlins "Capital Dilemma" the title of a new book by author Michael Wise, who examines the quest to develop building which are fitting to united Germanys new status in Europe, while stressing a break with its turbulent history." This quote from the Berlin article shows that architects wanted to rebuild Germany to reflect their culture of the past, present, and future. The architecture m ...
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Plutarch - 610 words
I found Plutarch to be a very interesting philosopher. But on the other hand I find his readings very difficult to read and understand. I often get lost in these readings and cannot pin point what Plutarch is trying to explain. In Plutarch's stories about these Greek hero's he explains what they do and why he likes them. He tells of certain values he praises them for and what things he sees as bad. But he confuses me while doing this. These "characters" who were real at a time seem to have done something or another towards the building of Rome. The three "characters" we read about have done something towards constructing Rome into the civilized culture we learn about. By making the first civ ...
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Why Was Socrates Found Guilty? Was He Fairly Tried And Condemned? - 1,387 words
At the time of Socrates' trial in 399 BC, Athens was still badly shaken by it's unstable political and military past. The surrender at the Battle of Aegospotami marked the loss of the Peloponnesian war to Sparta, a long and hard fought war which waged from 432-404 BC. Earlier in 411 BC a group of discontent Athenians led by Antiphon, Critias and Charmides briefly overthrew Athens democracy and established an oligarchy. While it only lasted until 410 BC, it was still fresh in the memory of Athenian citizens when it occurred again with Sparta's victory. Sparta established a government of oligarchs known as the Thirty Tyrants in 404 BC. Critias and Charmides were both involved again, Critias as ...
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Why Was Socrates Found Guilty? Was He Fairly Tried And Condemned? - 1,435 words
... phanes; he is mentioned explicitly shortly after this. While it may seem Aristophanes was maliciously attacking Socrates, credible evidence points to the contrary. The Clouds was an attack on the Sophists, and its plot required somebody to represent the typical Sophist. While Socrates differed in many regards to the Sophists, the public did not make the distinction, and it was they who Aristophanes was writing for. To anybody who knew Socrates personally the portrayal was, as was it was intended to be, absurd. However, those who knew him by name and rumor only most likely took it at face value. Socrates, we know, was not phased by it. Aelian tells us in his work Historical Miscellany of ...
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Greece - 1,678 words
My report is about Greece. Through my research, I learned that Greece was founded in 3000 B.C. Greece is located in Southern Europe, bordering the Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea, between Turkey and Albania. Greeces area can be compared to the size of the state of Alabama. Between 3500 and 3000 B.C., society was becoming more complex. Villages built during this time were becoming larger. However, the population increased at a slow rate. During the second millennium B.C. two Greek civilizations evolved - the Minoan in Crete and the Mycenaean on the mainland. Sometime around 1349 B.C., the Mycenaean peoples conquered the island of Crete, and the Minoan civilization basically ...
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Greco-roman Culture: Lysistrata - 1,204 words
Aristophanes was a "craft" comedy poet in the fourth century B.C. during the time of the Peloponnesian War. Aristophanes' usual style was to be too satirical, and suggesting the outlandish. He shows little mercy when mocking Socrates and his "new-fangled ideas" which were most likely designed to destroy the cohesiveness of society and lead to anarchy, in his play The Clouds. The most absurd and humorous of Aristophanes' comedies are those in which the main characters, the heroes of the story, are women. Smart women. One of the most famous of Aristophanes' comedies depicting powerfully effectual women is the Lysistrata, named after the female lead character of the play. It portrays Athenian L ...
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Herodotus - 748 words
Herodotus (484-424 BC ?) a Greek historian, known as the father of history, who was the first historian to apply critical evaluation to his material, while also recording divergent opinions. He made his prose style resemble the finest poetry by its persuasiveness, its charm, and its utterly delightful effect. Although his writings have been praised, their trustworthiness has been questioned both in ancient and modern times. After four years in Athens, he traveled widely in Egypt, Asia and the Black Sea region of E. Europe, before settling at Thurii in S. Italy in 443 BC. He wrote accounts of his various travels for the people of Greece. He read his, "History" publicly to the Athenians and wa ...
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The Life Of Socrates - 1,450 words
I. Socrates The most interesting and influential thinker in the fifth century was Socrates, whose dedication to careful reasoning transformed the entire enterprise. Since he sought genuine knowledge rather than mere victory over an opponent, He familiarized himself with the rhetoric and dialectics of the Sophists, the speculations of the Lonian philosophers, and the general culture of Periclean Athens. Socrates employed the same logical tricks developed by the Sophists to a new purpose, the pursuit of truth. Thus, his willingness to call everything into question and his determination to accept nothing less than an adequate account of the nature of things make him the first clear exponent of ...
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Plato Versus Aristotle - 1,177 words
Plato vs. Aristotle Numerous experts in modern time regard Plato as the first genuine political philosopher and Aristotle as the first political scientist. They were both great thinkers in regards to, in part with Socrates, being the foundation of the great western philosophers. Plato and Aristotle each had ideas in how to proceed with improving the society in which they were part of during their existence. It is necessary therefore to analyze their different theoretical approaches regarding their philosophical perspectives, such as ethics and psychology. This paper however will mainly concentrate on Aristotles view on friendship and how it influences todays society. The main objective in Pl ...
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Analysis Of "disease & History" - 1,195 words
The authors of Disease & History point out that disease has been a crucial determinant that marks history. Frederick F. Cartwright, Department of the History of Medicine, and Dr. Michael Biddiss, Director of Studies in History at Downing College Cambridge, collaborated together to write this book. With Dr. Biddiss extensive knowledge of history as a professional historian and with Cartwrights studies of the history of medicine they have written a book about the effects diseases have on history. Dr. Biddiss was both a writer and editor of the book. Biddiss and Cartwright discussed each chapter with each other. There have been many well-known victims of terminal illnesses. Some of these in ...
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