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Free research essays on topics related to: northern europe

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  • Viking Impact On Northern Europe - 551 words
    When we hears the term Viking an immediate image of bloodthirsty men with long beards and horned helmets is conjured up in our minds. This is the image the historical sources have given us, and it is partly true. Vikings were merciless when raiding, but they were peaceful when they traded. Their navigational technology was exceptional, and the ones who settled in foreign lands contributed greatly to the lands culture. The Vikings are famous for their violent ways when they pillaged and plundered villages of Northern Europe. Their dramatic exploits commenced during 800 1050 A.D, The first being the raid on Lindisfarne Monastery in 793, followed by a chain of attacks all over the coast of nor ...
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  • Ayasofya - 4,943 words
    ... misphere set on the larger circle is intersected by vertical planes rising from the sides of the square, forming four arches. A horizontal plane is then passed through the hemisphere at the tops of these arches, providing a ring on which is built the dome, which has a diameter equal to the circle inscribed within the square. The pendentives are spherical triangles, the remaining portions of the first, or outer, hemisphere. At Hagia Sophia, two opposing arches on the central square open into semidomes, each pierced by three smaller radial semidomes, forming an oblong volume 31 m (100 ft) wide by 80 m (260 ft) long. The central dome rises out of this series of smaller spherical surfaces. A ...
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  • A Study Of Lyme Disease In New Jersey - 1,249 words
    Just by living in the world, human beings are susceptible to disease. Many diseases -- for example, influenza and tuberculosis -- are spread when bacteria or viruses pass from one person to another. Other diseases are acquired genetically from ones parents, such as cystic fibrosis. Some diseases, such as heart disease and osteoporosis, develop as humans age. Others humans get from the environment; examples are lead poisoning and skin cancer due to exposure to the sun. Finally, there are diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans. Lyme disease is one such disease. Cases of Lyme disease, which is transmitted to humans and pets by the bite of a tick, are steadily increasing in area ...
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  • Multiple Sclerosis - 742 words
    Multiple Sclerosis is a disease of the central nervous system, the nerves that make up the brain and spinal cord. This disease is commonly known as MS. Its cause is unknown, it cannot be prevented, and neither a cure or a safe and effective treatment has been able to halt its progression so far. It is not fatal, and much progress is being made in treating symptoms and identifying mechanisms that trigger this disease. Sclerosis comes from the Greek word skleros, which means hard. Multiple sclerosis refers to multiple areas of patchy scarring, or plaques, that result from demyelination, which means destruction of myelin, a fatty insulation covering the nerve fibers. Myelin is made from layers ...
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  • Women Immigrating - 362 words
    Early women immigrating to Canada was generated by a network of emigration agents who were salesman who advertised to Canada's attraction's to prospected immigrants. They targeted wealthy farmers, agricultural laborers and female domestics, preferably from Great Britain, the United States and Northern Europe. Canada's first immigration legislation, the Immigration Act of 1869 reflected the laissez-faire philosophy of the time by not saying which classes of immigrants should be admitted but , merely that the "governor" could prohibit the landing of pauper or destitute immigrants at any Canadian port. The Chinese, who were arriving in large numbers to build the railway, were a special target o ...
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  • Crusades - 938 words
    After the death of Charlemagne, king of the Franks, in 814 and the following collapse of his empire, Christian Europe was under attack and on the defensive. The Magyars, nomadic people from Asia, ravaged eastern and central Europe until the 10th century. Around 800, several centuries of Viking raids disrupted life in northern Europe and even threatened Mediterranean cities. Nevertheless, the greatest threat came from the forces of Islam, very militant and victorious in the centuries following the death of their leader, Muhammad, in 632. By the eighth century Islamic forces had conquered North Africa, the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, and most of Spain. Islamic armies established bases ...
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  • Cystic Fibrosis - 1,216 words
    According to old northern European folklore, a child that tasted salty when kissed upon the forehead was bewitched and would soon die. Today we know the reason -the genetic disease, cystic fibrosis or CF. It is a chronic, progressive disease and the most common, fatal inherited disorder in the United States. About 30,000 Americans suffer from cystic fibrosis, and 2500 babies are born in the U.S. with the disease each year. While all races and ethnic groups may suffer from the disease, it occurs most often in whites whose ancestors came from northern Europe. About 1 in every 20 Americans is an unaffected carrier of the disease because they have one abnormal CF gene. Patients with CF produce a ...
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  • Cooking - 1,678 words
    The importance of cooking for humanity is essential because we interact withit every day. Cooking styles varies depending the country and culture we talk about. For example Puerto Rico has a very peculiar cooking style that differs it from the rest of the world. Since I was a boy my grandmother show me how to cook and eat. Because of it I became a big eater and food passed to be a very important subject in my life. If we talk about the cooking in Puerto Rico we will need to divided between everyday cooking and holyday cooking. In this country food is a everyday thing that even unite families and strangers together. This quality was even stronger in the past forty years. I remembered when my ...
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  • Effects Of Acid Rain - 482 words
    A form of air pollution, currently a subject of controversy because of widespread environmental damage it has been blamed. It forms when oxides of sulfur and nitrogen combine with atmospheric moisture to make sulfuric and nitric acids, which then can be carried long distances from their source before they are released by rain. The pollution may also take the form of snow or fog or be precipitated in dry forms. One large area that has been studied extensively is northern Europe, where acid rain has eroded structures, injured crops and forests, and threatened or ended life in freshwater lakes. In 1984, for example, environmental reports said that almost half of the trees in Germany's Black For ...
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  • Fuedalism - 722 words
    To combat the Vikings and other invaders, many European rulers enlisted the aid of nobles under system known as feudalism. The nobles pledged their military assistance and their loyalty to the rulers in return for land and protection. The land a noble received was called a manor. Each manor was a self-sufficient estate, which included a manor house, pastures, fields, and a village. Most of those who lived in the manor were serfs, men and women bound to the land by their labor. Serfs were required to work their lords land in exchange for a share of the crops they grew and for protection from attack by outsiders. Feudal society operated under a rigid class system. At top of society was the nob ...
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  • Summary British History - 1,484 words
    Britain is an Island and its history has been closely connected to the sea. The seas saved Britain from danger. Strong national sense have been developed by the sea. Britain has not always been an island. The ice age wasnt one cold period. Our first evidence of human life is a few stone tools, dating from 250.000 BC. Britain was hardly habitable until another milder period around 50.000 BC. During this period, a new type of human seemed to have arrived. They look similar to normal people, but they were smaller and had a life span of only thirty years. Around 10.000 BC Britain was peopled by groups of hunters, gatherers and fishers. Around 5.000 BC, Britain has become an island. The first pe ...
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  • Renaissance - 1,047 words
    During the era known as the Renaissance Europe emerged from its economic troubles of the Middle Ages and experienced a time of financial growth. Also the Renaissance was an age in which artistic, social, scientific and political thought turned in new directions however. The most important changes during the Renaissance were the changes that took place in the way how people viewed themselves and their world. The Renaissance was a rebirth that occurred throughout most of Europe but the start of the Renaissance first arose in Northern Italy, this was due to Italys prime location as an international trading center. However the changes that were associated with the Renaissance first occurred in t ...
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  • Marine Corps - 2,285 words
    ... f on the battlefields of France as the 4th Marine Brigade earned the title of "Devil Dogs" for heroic action during 1918 at Belleau Wood, Soissons, St. Michiel, Blanc Mont, and in the final Meuse-Argonne offensive. Marine aviation, which dates from 1912, also played a part in the war effort, as Marine pilots flew day bomber missions over France and Belgium. More than 30,000 Marines had served in France and more than a third were killed or wounded in six months of intense fighting. (Alexander, 395) The Marines continued to protect American interests throughout Latin America and Asia during the years between World War I and World War II. From 1929 until the outbreak of the war with Japan, ...
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  • How Chinese Rudder Effected Christopher Columbus - 1,533 words
    The development of the rudder was one of the most important sea navigational inventions that have ever been invented. Before the twelfth century in northern Europe, ships were steered by a quarter-rudder mounted on the stern side of the vessel. Up until the fourteenth century the use of the quarter rudder persisted in the Mediterranean. Two quarter-mounted steering oars were used. By age of exploration, the pintle-and-gudgeon rudder, hung from the sternpost had replaced quarter-rudder. The rudder brought great changes to the world. The voyages of Christopher Columbus may have never occurred if the Chinese had not of invented the rudder in first century AD. The action of a rudder is basically ...
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  • Xdsl Technology - 1,834 words
    The accelerated growth of content rich applications and online gaming, which demand high bandwidth, has changed the nature of information networks. High-speed communication is now an ordinary requirement throughout business, government, academic, and home office environments. Internet access, telecommuting, and remote LAN access are three of the clearly defined services that network access providers are offering now. These rapidly growing applications are placing a new level of demand on the telephone infrastructure. In particular, the local loop portion of the network (i.e., the local connection from the subscriber to the local central office) has become a challenge for telephone companies. ...
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  • Xdsl Technology - 1,865 words
    ... ndwidths that can be greater than 1MHz, much greater than the 3000Hz or so allocated for voice transmission. There are several types of xDSL signal in commercial use today. Each signal type is implemented in circuitry with accompanying software, called a transceiver. The transceiver design includes the encoding or modulation scheme along with decoding or demodulation applied to convert serial binary data streams into a form suitable for transmission through twisted wire pairs. The transceivers may also employ various signal processing, equalization, amplification, and shaping techniques to adapt transmission for physical attenuation and phase distortions experienced by signals transmitte ...
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  • Islam In The 20th Century - 734 words
    The three largest and oldest religions of the world are Judaism, Christianity and Islam. The history of the Hebrews and their relationship with God is told into the first books of the Bible, known as the Old Testament. The Ten Commandments, which are also followed by Christians, is a set of rules that forbid immoral conduct, such as stealing and murder. Both Islam and Christianity developed out of Judaism. All three religions believe in one God (monotheistic) Christianity later divided into Eastern Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism. Finally, in the Protestant Reformation of the 1500s, Western Europe divided into Roman Catholicism and Protestantism. Islam emerged on the Arabian Peninsula. Withi ...
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  • Medieval Church And State - 1,037 words
    The Relationship Between Church and State The church had considerable material wealth, which instigated a problem: Who was superior, Pope or King? This question caused a great deal of strife during the Middle Ages, but the pope always had the advantage, until the end of the Medieval Period, when the state finally triumphed over the popes powers of interdict and excommunication. The practical impact of the Church resulted from the general acceptance of its theology. It taught that by devotion to its prescribed belief and code of conduct, the world would be improved against the Day of Judgment. This belief and code were inforced by strict penalties. During the Middle Ages, Catholicism was the ...
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  • Commerce One - 1,041 words
    Commerce One Inc. (Nasdaq: CMRC) and SAPMarkets, Inc., the SAP AG (NYSE:SAP) subsidiary, today announced they will deliver their joint e-marketplace solution for the Integrated Business Exchange (IBX), throughout the Nordic region. The independently owned open exchange, founded by Ericsson, SEB and b-business partners will link buyers and sellers of goods and services across all industries and countries in the Nordic region. IBX will run on MarketSet(TM), the joint solution recently developed by Commerce One and SAPMarkets. As Commerce One and SAPMarkets' first joint Nordic customer, IBX will become a leading B2B e-marketplace in the Nordic region and join the Commerce One Global Trading Web ...
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  • Weapons Of The Middle Age - 1,656 words
    The year is 1232. Somewhere in northern Europe, a Saxon castle is under attack. In the fields for miles around, thousands of soldiers viciously fight. Metal strikes metal, arrows strike flesh, rock strikes rock. No matter how good these soldiers are, the battle will ultimately be decided by weapons. These weapons can be divided into three categories. Melee, or hand-to- hand weapons, include clubs, swords, daggers, saxes, hand axes, and some spears. Small-scale missile weapons include other spears, bows and arrows, throwing axes, and crossbows. Siege, or large-scale weapons, include catapaults and battering rams. Melee weapons were, perhaps, the most important ones in any medieval battle. The ...
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