Metabolic Muscular And Nervous Systems - 1,731 words
The immediate source of energy for muscular contraction is the high-energy phosphate compound called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Although ATP is not the only energy-carrying molecule in the cell, it is the most important one, and without sufficient amounts of ATP most cells die quickly. The three main parts of an ATP molecule are: an adenine portion, a ribose portion, and three phosphates linked together. The formation of ATP occurs by combining adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi). This formation requires a large amount of energy to and it is called a high-energy bond. In order for a muscle to contract, the enzyme ATPase breaks the ATP bond and releases energy which is ...
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Metabolic Muscular And Nervous Systems - 1,672 words
... ws the cross-bridge to detach and re-attach to another active site on an actin molecule. This contraction cycle is repeated as long as free calcium is available to bind the troponin and ATP is available to provide the energy. The signal to stop contraction is the absence of the nerve impulse at the neuromuscular junction. When this occurs, an energy requiring calcium pump located within the sarcoplasmic reticulum begins to move the calcium back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum. This removal of calcium from troponin causes tropomyosin to move back to cover the binding sites on the actin molecule and cross-bridge interaction ceases. It is possible for skeletal muscle to exert force without ...
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Caries - 2,340 words
Caries have been a constant nuisance to humans, decaying teeth can become a major problem for those affected. It is certainly not the oldest pathology, nor the one of the greatest prevalence throughout humankind, but the information that can be extrapolate from such pathologies is great. The aim of this paper is to outline the pathology of caries and the influence that these have had on the human populations affected. Caries or caries dentium is the common name for tooth decay. It is a local disease, which is characterized by an irreversible and permanent destruction of the tooth hard tissue, enamel. Thus spreads the destruction to the rest of the tooth and, and possibly leading to tooth los ...
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Ecosystem - 1,145 words
An ecosystem is the complex of living organisms, their physical environment, and all their interrelationships in a particular unit of space. The principles underlying the study of ecosystems are based on the view that all the elements of a life-supporting environment of any size, whether natural or man-made, are parts of an integral network in which each element interacts directly or indirectly with all others and affects the function of the whole. All ecosystems are contained within the largest of them, the ecosphere, which encompasses the entire physical Earth (geosphere) and all of its biological components (biosphere). An ecosystem can be categorized into its abiotic constituents, includ ...
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The Gift Of Life - 561 words
The debate regarding the ethical issues about organ donation and transplantation has been present for many years. This is primarily due to the unique exchange that must occur. No other treatment so intimately involves the public. People must donate their organs or tissues to make the treatment possible. The question that remains is why are people not donating their organs? One of the main reasons people do not donate organs is distrust of the medical profession. People are afraid that physicians will declare the patients death prematurely for the sole purpose of retrieving their organs. This may be due to the lack of knowledge regarding the procedure used to protect potential donors. Many in ...
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Creatine For Athletic Performance - 1,074 words
... effect (Phillips 15)." 1.) "By volumizing your cells to hold more resources then normal(15)." 2.) "Create a drug like effect on cellular processes(15)." With this scenario, the dietary supplement can exert a positive effect on muscle metabolism and/or performance. The third theory and most important relating to my paper states that a supplement might help you build muscle, enhance athlete performance and improve your health by simply making up for the deficiency. This has basically been what most dieticians, nutritionists, doctors, etc. have viewed supplements as a means of protecting your body against vitamin and mineral deficiencies and so on. Supplements have been widely used for dec ...
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Lifting Weights Reduces Weight - 539 words
We all know that regular aerobic exercise raises the Basic Metabolic Rate, or BMR which in turn burns calories, thus resulting in weight loss. There is, however, increasing evidence to support the idea that there is another way to increase metabolism and keep it up over a long period of time. This other exercise is called strength training, or isometrics. Strength training involves working an isolated muscle group against resistance repeatedly. Most commonly known would be weight lifting. Many view the benefits of strength training and aerobic exercise differently. Most simply stated: Aerobic activity burns calories while strength training increases strength and muscle. We do not typically t ...
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Anorexia - 1,569 words
Each year millions of people in the United States are affected by serious and sometimes life-threatening eating disorders. The vast majorities are adolescents and young adult women. Approximately one percent of adolescent girls develop anorexia nervosa, a dangerous condition in which they can literally starve themselves to death. Another two to three percent develop bulimia nervosa, a destructive pattern of excessive overeating followed by vomiting or other " purging " behaviors to control their weight. These eating disorders also occur in men and older women, but much less frequently. The consequences of eating disorders can be severe. For example, one in ten anorexia nervosa leads to death ...
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Hypoglycemia - 1,246 words
Hypoglycemia is a condition in which the amount of sugar in the blood drops to an abnormally low level. It occurs in association with a number of diseases and can affect anyone. Blood sugar, more formally known as glucose, is the fuel all cells in your body uses for heat and energy (Hypoglycemia, (Low Blood Sugar)). Glucose is produced by the breakdown of glycogen, a pancreatic hormone that tends to raise sugar in the blood. Glucose enters the cells of your body through insulin. Insulin is what lowers the blood sugar. Glucose also enters the body in many ways, including absorption from the digestive tract and diffusion from the tissue fluids and the liver. Glucose leaves the blood by diffusi ...
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Dothiepin Vs Fluoxetine Mechanism Of Action And Pharmacodynamics - 1,271 words
Comparison Between Mechanism of Action and Pharmacodynamics of Dothiepin and Fluoxetine Mechanism of action and pharmacodynamics Dothiepin is a tricyclic antidepressant. It acts by promoting the effectiveness of several amines (dopamine, norepinephrine, and 5-hydroxytryptamine, which is also known as 5HT and serotonin). It functions by inhibiting their reuptake at the terminals of nerve cells, thus leading to their prolonged presence at the synaptic cleft and an increased effect on the neuron.(1) The reuptake pumps for the above amines are responsible for reducing the concentration of these amines. Dothiepin works by blocking the pumps. According to the amine hypothesis, a decreased concentr ...
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Maintaining A Healthy Weight - 872 words
Data collected from more than 20,000 people by the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey reveal a distressing picture of excessive weight and obesity in American Society( These increases have been caused by greater daily caloric consumption and a relatively low level of consistent physical activity. Today the average American man consumes 2,684 calories per day compared to 1,531 calories in 1980. Additionally only 22 percent of adults engage in thirty minutes of moderately intense activity for the recommended number of days per week. This increase in weight occurs, however, only when the body is supplied with more energy than it can use and the excess energy is stored in the ...
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None Provided - 1,235 words
(Family: Chaetodontidae) THE INDICATOR HYPOTHESIS "Coral feeding Butterflyfishes respond to declines in coral quality or abundance by behavioral and spatial adjustments that can be easily and rapidly observed." (Crosby & Reese 1996) A fundamental question that one asks when using Chaetodontidae, or for that reason any species as biomonitors is: why use an organism when sophisticated machines are available to detect very small quantities of pollution in short space and time? One might think that biomonitoring has become redundant because of these machines, but the opposite is true, chemical monitoring tells us what is there, but not its effects - especially long term effects on ecosystems the ...
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Toxicology - 1,463 words
*HTML**FONT SIZE=5 PTSIZE=14**B*The Forensic Science Review*/FONT**FONT SIZE=3 PTSIZE=10**BR* Application of fluorescence spectroscopy to forensic science; Siegel JA (US); 8(1):1-11; 1996.*BR* Application of pyrolysis gas chromatography in forensic science; Blackledge RD (US); 4(1):1-16; 1992.*BR* Determination of drugs of abuse and their stereoisomers by circular dichroism; Purdie N (US); 3(1):1-16; 1991.*BR* Forensic identification of explosives by mass spectrometry and allied techniques; Yinon J (Israel); 3(1):17-27; 1991.*BR* Forensic science applications of ion mobility spectrometry; Karpas Z (Israel); 1(2):103-119; 1989.*BR* HPLC analysis of enantiomeric composition of abused drugs; Se ...
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A Lasting Effect - 1,851 words
The alarm clock sounds, but this time Jeff wakes up well rested. It is the first day of summer vacation, and that means he can watch all of his favorite day time television shows with no interruptions. Grabbing a big bowl of his favorite cereal he settles on the couch for what is to be a very eventful day in the world of soap opera heaven. As he gets comfortable little does Jeff know the effect his television watching will have on him. Since the 1920s the television has been an integral part of the lives of Americans. When the television was invented, it was designed as a means of dispersing information to the general public. The problem is not just television shows per se, or the Nintendo o ...
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Chemistry Investigation - 1,210 words
Investigate A Factor Which Affects the Rate Of Fermentation Of Yeast This experiment is investigating one of the factors which affects the rate of fermentation of yeast. Several factors affect the rate of reaction: Increasing the concentration. (See the lock and key theory.) If the substrate (glucose) is increased, then there would be more keys for the locks, therefore an increase in reactant concentration leads to an increase in reaction rate. The surface area, the bigger the surface area, the faster the reaction time is, as the reactant can reach more parts. The temperature, an increase in temperature leads to an increase in reactant rate. Generally, as the tempe ...
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Chemistry Investigation - 1,202 words
... ondary sources, from a textbook, encyclopdia, and preliminary work that I have done in class. I have shown my results on a bar chart and a line graph. On the line graph, I have drawn a curve of best-fit. There were no anomalous results. From my results, and my graph, I have found out that as the temperature of the enzymes (yeast in this case) is increased, the rate of reaction speeds up. However, when the temperature reached a certain point, (about 40 degrees Celsius), the enzymes became denatured, and the rate of reaction slowed down, eventually reaching zero, as I mentioned in my prediction. I have drawn three construction lines on my graph, the first shows the temperature increasing s ...
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Math As It Relates To Biology - 1,447 words
Mathematics as it relates to Biology Mathematics and many of its aspects are a major part of everyday life. We spend the majority of our school years studying and learning the concepts of it. Many times, the question of Why do we need to know these things? has been asked of a teacher by his or her students. The following will explain the history and purpose of mathematics in the role of a biologist. There are various fields that are found within the subject of biology, so different kinds of mathematics are often utilized that are best suited for special applications that are required in said areas of work/study. There is, for example, a sub-field known as bioeconomics. This area focuses on s ...
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Alternative Medicine - 1,269 words
Alternative medicine, also known as alternative therapies, lie outside the realm of conventional medicine. An alternative therapy is any intervention that: is not reimbursable by most health insurance providers in the United States, is not well supported by scientific tests establishing safety and effectiveness, and is not taught by most medical schools in the United States. They are also called adjunctive, unconventional, or unorthodox therapies. There are many general areas of alternative medicine. This paper will outline just five of those general areas, and give examples of each. One area of alternative therapy is alternative systems of medical practice. One example of this kind of alter ...
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The Ocean And Its Priperties - 1,582 words
The oceans are said to be the source of life. The enormous, blue, calm oceans are the signatures of the planet earth. They cover nearly three-fourths of the surface of the earth. This is equal to 71 percent of the earths entire surface or about 361 million sq km (140 million sq mi). Its average depth is 5000 m (16,000 ft), and its total volume is about 1,347,000,000 cu km (322,300,000 cu mi). This includes the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans. These oceans are bordered by the continental masses or by ocean ridges or currents. The ocean basins hold at immense amount of over 285 million cubic miles of water (1185 million cu. km.). This quantity of water developed from the Earth's interior ...
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Mitosis - 531 words
Mitosis is the process of nuclear division in a living cell by which the chromosomes are exactly replicated, the two parts being separated are given to the daughter nuclei. In this process the two daughter cells receive chromosomes that are alike in composition and equal in the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. Mitosis consists of four main stages. Mitotic division occurs in somatic (body) cells. The stages are prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. In interphase the cell seems to be inactive for most of the time. Really the cell is undergoing normal cell processes, and all metabolic activities. Towards the end interphase the cell undergoes preparations for cell division, yet ...
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