Caries - 2,340 words
Caries have been a constant nuisance to humans, decaying teeth can become a major problem for those affected. It is certainly not the oldest pathology, nor the one of the greatest prevalence throughout humankind, but the information that can be extrapolate from such pathologies is great. The aim of this paper is to outline the pathology of caries and the influence that these have had on the human populations affected. Caries or caries dentium is the common name for tooth decay. It is a local disease, which is characterized by an irreversible and permanent destruction of the tooth hard tissue, enamel. Thus spreads the destruction to the rest of the tooth and, and possibly leading to tooth los ...
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What Do Aniamls Mean To Us - 581 words
When it comes to dealing with animals humans tend to think that they can do whatever they want. Animals should have rights just as humans have rights. However, animal rights are disregarded as we continue to eat and use them in experiments. We view animals not as living creatures, but as objects to do with as we please. This is not the preception that we should have of animals. In The Inhumanity of the Animal People, Joy Williams speaks of the injustice that befalls animals at the hands of humans. Williams says The fact that animals are voiceless is a relief to us, it frees us from feeling much emathy or sorrow (Williams 1). If animals could speak, feeling empathy or sorrow would not be guar ...
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Clean Air Act - 1,244 words
1990, the federal Clean Air Act was passed to improve air quality in the United States. President Bush's proposed amendments to the Clean Air Act initially would have led to the introduction of alternative, non-petroleum fuels. The petroleum and oxygenate industries responded by offering a reformulated gasoline program as a substitute for most of the alternate fuel proposals. As a result, the amendments to the federal Clean Air Act adopted in 1990 required steps to achieve lower vehicle emissions, including programs to oxygenate and reformulate gasoline. Oxygenated gasoline is designed to increase the combustion efficiency of gasoline, thereby reducing carbon monoxide emissions. Since Januar ...
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Bad Science - 702 words
I have a cousin who's little girl, Christina was born mentally impaired; she, at the age of 7 has no mental functions despite those of a very basic nature. She has total congenital hearing failure; she cannot speak. It is incredibly frustrating to communicate to this unfortunate waif of a child. To supplement the ever increasing costs of care for her, my cousin and her husband have agreed to, on alternate weekends provide a medical lab with a fascinating research subject; a real live little girl. Last weekend, they inserted a tube into her throat via an incision, and fed her with poisonous chemicals until she convulsed. One summer afternoon, she was restrained to a surgical table, and had he ...
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Drug Addiction - 4,098 words
The emphasis is on biological mechanisms underlying addiction, although some other factors influencing drug addiction will also be discussed. The presentation is limited primarily to psychomotor stimulants (e.g., amphetamine, cocaine) and opiates (e.g., heroin, morphine) for two reasons. First, considerable knowledge has been gained during the past 15 years regarding the neurobiological mechanisms mediating their addictive properties. Second, these two pharmacological classes represent the best examples of potent addictive drugs, and the elucidation of their addiction potential can provide a framework for understanding abuse and addiction to other psychotropic agents. Some psychologists and ...
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Drug Addiction - 4,079 words
... ve drugs. The Addiction Research Center Inventory, an empirically derived test designed to measure the subjective effects of addictive drugs, detects the mood-elevating effects of psychomotor stimulants and opiates on the same scale (see Haertzen and Hickey 1987). On the other hand, the subjective-effects of these two drug classes can be easily distinguished. This is not surprising considering that ex-addicts report a preference for heroin over morphine (Martin and Fraser 1961), even though heroin is rapidly converted to morphine after entering the brain (Jaffe and Martin 1975). This drug preference is probably related to pharmacokinetic differences in these two compounds which may produ ...
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Animal Testingrights - 1,330 words
Do we own animals...or do we simply care for them as pets and use them in our experiments and research? What distinguishes a pet from a lab/test animal..What characteristics make them any different from each other? Do the tests we do actually have significance and how far can we take them? These are the debated questions many researchers stray from answering..These tests are supposedly for the better of humanity..but what do the animals get from them? What is it that gives us the right to pluck a species from its natural environment to cram it into a cage, breed it as often as we see fit, stick needles in its eyes and burn its skin? Often it is said that because animals can't feel as much pa ...
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Cloning - 1,104 words
Cloning has many more advantages than disadvantages. The definition of cloning is to duplicate an organism. Through cloning, you could help thousands of people and animals. Cloning can totally reduce organ donor lists. Cloning can also bring back endangered species. "Advanced cloning is going to happen, just as long as somebody can fund it," says Dr. Esterverks, a biology teacher at Nantucket High School. This quote almost makes cloning undebatable because cloning appears to be inevitable. Debating about it does not make too much difference if cloning is going to happen, but it does make sense to debate when cloning should be used and when it should be prohibited. Cloning offers many medical ...
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Animal Experimentation - 1,112 words
When faced with the choice of sparing an animal's life or saving a human being, most people would reasonably choose to save the human. But are human needs more important than non-human animals? Most people think of animals as objects whose purpose is to serve our desires and whims, whether for the taste of their flesh, or the feel of their fur and skin, or the profit that can be made from either of these activities. Perhaps we should rethink the multitude of ways we use animals for our purposes and endeavor to minimize their pain, discomfort, and wastage in performing such necessary functions as research and agriculture. It is a common belief that all creatures are created equal. Therefore, ...
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Elixirs For You Memory - 1,442 words
The blitz is on for ginkgo and other herbal products, but are they panaceas or placebos? Recently, everywhere you turn, you see or hear about new herbal remedies used for improving ones memory and concentration. One more frequently discussed is Ginkgo Biloba. It is an herbal substance that offers hope for improving memory, concentration and brain functions. Ginkgo Biloba is a derivative of a leafy ornamental tree that originated in eastern China. It is said to increase blood flow to the brain, improving alertness and concentration (Drummond, September 13,1999). Although many people who are currently taking this medication swear by it, who really knows if it does improve brain functions or if ...
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Diseses - 2,076 words
... ients. The initial symptom of MS is often blurred or double vision, red-green color distortion, or even blindness in one eye. (Brunnscheiler) Inexplicably, visual problems tend to clear up in the later stages of MS. Inflammatory problems of the optic nerve may be diagnosed as retrobulbar or optic neuritis. Fifty-five percent of MS patients will have an attack of optic neuritis at some time or other and it will be the first symptom of MS in approximately 15 percent. This has led to general recognition of optic neuritis as an early sign of MS, especially if tests also reveal abnormalities in the patient's spinal fluid. (National Multiple Sclerosis Society) Most MS patients experience muscl ...
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Agent Orange - 689 words
Diabetes Strongly Associated With Vietnam Exposure to Pesticide U.S. Air Force planes spray the defoliant chemical Agent Orange over dense vegetation in South Vietnam in this 1966 photo. Dioxin is the component of Agent Orange linked to many health effects in laboratory animals. (AP Photo) W A S H I N G T O N, March 29 An Air Force study released today confirmed a connection, long suspected by Vietnam veterans, between wartime exposure to the herbicide Agent Orange and diabetes. The Air Force said the link so far is only statistical and is yet to be proven conclusively by biological study. The National Academy of Sciences, a research arm of the government, is reviewing the results and is to ...
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Mtbe And The Environment - 1,245 words
In 1990, the federal Clean Air Act was passed to improve air quality in the United States. President Bush's proposed amendments to the Clean Air Act initially would have led to the introduction of alternative, non-petroleum fuels. The petroleum and oxygenate industries responded by offering a reformulated gasoline program as a substitute for most of the alternate fuel proposals. As a result, the amendments to the federal Clean Air Act adopted in 1990 required steps to achieve lower vehicle emissions, including programs to oxygenate and reformulate gasoline. Oxygenated gasoline is designed to increase the combustion efficiency of gasoline, thereby reducing carbon monoxide emissions. Since Jan ...
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Diabeties - 1,254 words
... ) and supplement with betaine HCl and digestive enzymes at 75-200 mg t.i.d. before meals. Have patience - the intestinal lesions take 60-90 days to heal". Vanadium Metallic vanadium (vanadyl sulfate) is absorbed from the intestinal tract ver) poorly at only O. 1 to 1.0 %; vanadium chelates at 40 % and plant derived colloidal! at up to 98 %. Vanadium was proven to be an essential trace mineral in 1971. Vanadium stimulates glucose (blood sugar) oxidation and transport in fat cells and glycogen (anima starch) synthesis in liver and muscle, and inhibits liver gluconeogenisis (production of glucose from fat) and absorption of glucose from the gut Vanadium enhances the stimulating effect of in ...
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Animal Rights - 1,132 words
For the past 20 years, there has a been an on going heated debate on whether experiments on animals for the benefit of medical and scientific research is ethical. Whether it is or isn't, most people believe that some form of cost-benefit test should be performed to determine if the action is right. The costs include: animal pain, distress and death where the benefits include the collection of new knowledge or the development of new medical therapies for humans. Looking into these different aspects of the experimentation, there is a large gap for argument between the different scientists' views. In the next few paragraphs, both sides of the argument will be expressed by the supporters. A well ...
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Animal Rights - 1,085 words
... s or pellets. they are also force-fed liquid chemicals by stomach tube, or through a hole cut in the animal's throat. Some animals die from the sheer bulk of the dosage administered or from the severe burns they receive in the throat and stomach from the chemicals used in products such as laundry bleach and detergents and cologne. There are variations to this test which include forcing the animal to breathe the substance or applying the substance to the shaved skin of the animal or injecting the substance into the body, usually the abdomen. The animals are not provided with painkillers because they may affect the test outcome. Millions of rats, rabbits, mice and guinea pigs have been use ...
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Animal Testing - 1,181 words
ISSUE: For the most part, we would not be able to live very comfortably without them. The question of what is considered proper treatment of animals has been highly debated by groups looking at both the moral and ethical issues of the situation. What exactly is our proper role with regard to non-human creatures? Do they have any rights, or may we do as we please with them? These are questions that politicians all over the world have been arguing about for many years, and still is as controversial as ever! PROBLEM: How can animal testing benefit both animals and humans without harming the animals? BACKGROUND: For thousands of years, humans have used animals for a variety of purposes including ...
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Cruelty To Animals - 619 words
A Major Issue of today are the cruel acts against test animals in class rooms and labs, these animals are literally being tortured to death by substances such as drugs, cosmetics, diseases, tobacco, alcohol, detergents and other poisons. After all these acts of cruelty such as locking animals in complete darkness, sending them crazy, turning them in to drug addicts inflicting diseases on them such as aids and Cancer, sending them blind or deaf, and there has even been cases of dogs being stiched together, and many cases of mice, rabbits, guinea pigs and even monkeys having cosmetics, detergents and other household products rubbed into thier shaven skin and having it dripped into thier eyes a ...
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Animal Testing Introduction - 1,800 words
The application of animals to test a large number of products from household compounds and cosmetics to Pharmaceutical products has been considered to be a normal strategy for many years. Laboratory animals are generally used in three primary fields: biomedical research, product security evaluation and education. (Animal Experiments) It has been estimated that approximately, 20 million animals are being used for testing and are killed annually; about 15 million of them are used to test for medication and five million for other products. Reports have been generated to indicate that about 10 percent of these animals are not being administered with painkillers. The supporters of animal rights a ...
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Animal Testing Introduction - 1,744 words
... C. If humans inhale a small amount of prussic acid fumes it can kill them. However, toads, sheep and hedgehogs can drink it without any harm; Scopolamine can kill humans with a dose of just 5 milligrams. To dogs and cats about 100 milligrams was considered harmless. Information like this can be misleading when scientists try to determine safe dogages. Penicillin, the first antibiotic, was experimented first on mice. Its application on guinea pigs would have entailed dangerous consequences, because penicillin controls the floral bacteria in the stomachs of guinea pigs and destroys them within a few days. The unpredictability of animal testing was thought to have harmful effect in the case ...
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