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Human relationships have always been dynamic. Change and adaptability have gone hand in hand with the passage of time for human society. Systems have been developed to regulate, direct and control the resources of this society. The systems are referred to as governments and the resources as the populace or inhabitants and forces of production. A government must be dynamic in its nature reflecting the change in society.
At times these systems have resisted the necessity to adapt with its components (Society) creating a deficit between the system and those it regulates. As the deficits develop, they cause instability, and could lead to revolution. 1 Theories have been developed to explain the systemic phenomenon Karl Marx was the greatest thinker and philosopher of his time. His view revolutionized the way in which people think. He created an opportunity for the lower class to rise above the aristocrats and failed due to the creation of the middle class. Despite this failure, he was still a great political leader and set the basis of Communism in Russia. His life contributed to the way people think today, and because of him people are more open to suggestion and are quicker to create ideas on political issues.
Karl Heinrich Marx was born May 5 th, 1818 in Trier. Although he had three other siblings, all sisters, he was the favorite child to his Father, Heinrich. His mother, a Dutch Jewess named Henrietta Pressure, had no interest in Karl's intellectual side during his life. His father was a Jewish lawyer, and before his death in 1838, converted his family to Christianity to preserve his job with the Prussian state. When Heinrich's mother died, he no longer felt he had an obligation to his religion, thus helping him in the decision in turning to Christianity. Karl's childhood was a happy and care-free one.
His parents had a good relationship and it help set Karl in the right direction. " His? splendid natural gifts awakened in his father the hope that they would one day be used in the service of humanity, whilst his mother declared him everything would go well. (The story of his life, Mehring, page 2). In High school Karl stood out among the crowd. When asked to write a report on " How to choose a profession" he took a different approach. He took the angle in which most interested him, by saying that there was no way to choose a profession, but because of circumstances one is placed in an occupation. A person with a aristocratic background is more likely to have a higher role in society as apposed to someone from a much poorer background.
While at Bonn at the age of eighteen he got engaged to Jenny von Westphalen, daughter of the upperclassmen Ludwig von Westphalen. She was the childhood friend of Marx's oldest sister, Sophie. The engagement was a secret one, meaning they got engaged without asking permission of Jenny's parents. Heinrich Marx was uneasy about this but before long the consent was given. Karl's school life other than his marks is unknown. He never spoke of his friends as a youth, and no one has ever came to speak of him through his life.
He left high school in August of 1835 to go on to the University of Bonn in the fall of the same year to study law. His father wanted him to be a lawyer much like himself but when Karl's reckless university life was getting in the way after a year Heinrich transferred him to Berlin. Also, he did not go to most lectures, and showed little interest in what was to be learned. Karl's reckless ways were not tolerated at Berlin, a more conservative college without the mischievous ways of the other universities. While at Berlin, Marx became part of the group known as the Yong Hegelians. The group was organized in part due to the philosophy teacher Hegel that taught from 1818 to his death.
The teachings of Hegel shaped the way the school thought towards most things. Those who studied Hegel and his ideals were known as the Young Hegelians. Hegel spoke of the development and evolution of the mind and of ideas. Although Karl was younger than most in the group, he was recognized for his intellectual ability and became the focus of the group.
While at Berlin " He came to believe that all the various sciences and philosophies were part of one overarching, which, when completed, which would give a true and total picture of the universe and man. " (Communist Manifesto, Marx (Francis B. Randal), page 15) Marx was an atheist, and believed that science and philosophy would prove everything. Thus he had no belief in a god of any type. Marx believed that Hegel must have been an atheist as well because of his strong belief in the mind.
Marx's doctoral thesis was competed in 1841. It carried the title " The Difference Between the Philosophies of Nature of Democrtius and Epicurus. " (The Making of Marx's Critical Theory, Oakley, page 11) It had to do with the Greek philosopher Epicurus and how his beliefs related to Marx's of that day. This thesis was an early indication of the thinking behind Karl Marx. Much of his later work and ideas are evident in this essay. He passed his thesis into the University of Jena because Bonn and Berlin required an oral part to the thesis. The quickness was also a matter in this.
He passed it in early April, and got his degree in history and philosophy in April 15, 1841. After graduation he was unable to find work. This caused him to take a job with the German newspaper Rheinische Zeitung in early 1842. By the end of the year, Marx made editor- in-chief.
A few months after that in 1843 because of his radical writings, and his social views, Marx was forced to step down as editor, and soon after that the paper closed altogether. He married Jenny von Westphalen, and with a member of the Young Hegelians, Arnold Re went to Paris to publish a radical journal on his beliefs. It was evident in his works that he was a revolutionary that advocated criticism of everything in existence. This was especially anticipated by the proletariat.
The proletariat were the working class of the day. They were the poor and made up the majority of people. Marx went on to believe that the proletariat would rise up against the bourgeoisie. Then in 1844 Marx met a man that would change his life forever. When going to England after doing military service, he meet Marx in Cologne in the offices of the Rheinische Zeitung.
Both of them had gone through the German philosophic school and whilst abroad they came to the same conclusions but while Marx arrived at an understanding of the struggles and the demands of the age basis of the French Revolution, Engles did so on the basis of English industry. (The Story of His life, Mehring, page 93) Friedrich Engles was born in 1820 in the Rhine Province of the Kingdom of Prussia. Like Marx he was brought up with the German philosophies of Hegel, and like Marx, Engles began to follow the works of Hegel. These parallels between Marx and Engles formed a relationship that would last for the rest of each others lives. They both contributed to each others works, and co-wrote many things.
The similarity in background between the two also meant a similarity in ideas. The both believed in the struggle of the proletariat and that it would rise up against the bourgeoisie. Marx is considerate to be the greater of the two philosophies. The one contrast was the way in which one solved problems.
Marx would use historical research to solve a problem, as apposed Engles who used his imagination and pure mind to come about a solution. These differences in culture and similarities in beliefs complemented each other well. This outlook on society and the class war was ingenious. It was their greatest work together, the communist manifesto, which achieved them their most popularity among the proletariat, and created the most problems with the government for the two.
Communist Manifesto or Manifest der Kommunistischen Part was a book written by Marx with collaboration from Engles. Basically meaning that Marx wrote it but he discussed the issues in the manifesto with Engles. It documents the objectives and principals of the Communist League, an organization of and intellectuals. It was published in London in 1848, shortly before the revolution in Paris.
The manifesto is divided into four parts, and the beginning of the entire document reads " A specter is haunting Europe" . The first part outlines his ideas on history and a prediction on what is yet to come. He predicts a confrontation between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie, the working class and the higher class. Because of the main logic behind capitalism the bourgeoisie will seek more power and more wealth. With them doing this, the living conditions of the proletariat will decrease.
Numbers of proletariat will increase as well as their political awareness, and will revolt against the bourgeoisie and will eventually win. In the second part Marx discusses the importance of Communism, and if private property is abolished, class distinctions will be as well. The second part also stresses the importance of the necessity of the proletariat and bourgeoisie being common and the level of class being the same. The third part critiques other social ideas of the modern day. The final and fourth part discussed the differences between his political issues as apposed to those of the other oppositional parties. This part ends in bold capital letters " WORKINGMEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE! " The days of November 1850 fall almost exactly in the middle of Marx's life and they represent, not only externally, an important turning point in his lifes work.
Marx himself was keenly aware of this and Engles perhaps even more so. (The Story of his life, Mehring, page 208) Living in political exile his life changed. His ideas were no longer followed like they once were. His isolation from the general public provided a new light in his life. Then, in 1855, his only son died. His son showed much potential, and was the life of the family. When he died, Jenny became very sick with anxiety, and Marx himself became very depressed.
He wrote to Engles " The house seems empty and deserted since the boy died. He was its life and soul. It is impossible to describe how much we miss him all of the time. I have suffered all sorts of misfortunes but now I know what real misfortune is. " (The Story of his Life, Mehring, page 247) After the Communist League disbanded in 1852 Marx tried to create another organization much like it. Then, in 1862 the First International was established in London. Marx was the leader.
He made the inaugural speech and governed the work of the governing body of the International. When the International declined, Marx recommended moving it to the United States. The ending of the International in 1878 took much out of Marx, and made him withdraw from his work; much like the ending of the Communist League had done. This time, it was for good.
The last ten years of his life is known as " a slow death" . This is because the last eight years many medical problems affected his life. In the autumn of 1873 he was inflected by apoplexy which effected his brain which made him incapable of work and any desire to write. After weeks of treatment in Manchester, he recovered fully. He controlled the demise of his health. Instead of relaxing in his old age he went back to work on his own studies.
His late nights and early mornings decreased his health in the last few years of his life. In January of 1883, after the death of his daughter Jenny, he suffered from Bronchitis and made it almost impossible to swallow.
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