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... tani, Eg, Futami, and Miyagawa (1994) note that Tree diagrams, also know as systematic diagrams or deprograms, are an application of a method originally developed for function analysis in value engineering... The main advantages of tree diagrams are as follows: They allow a system of strategies for solving a problem or means of achieving an objective to be developed systematically and logically, making it less likely that any essential items will be omitted. They facilitate agreement among group members. Because they identify and clearly display the strategies for solving a problem, they are extremely convincing... strategies may be developed to as many as five successive levels, thus systematically generating many different approaches to solving the problem.
Ofuji (1995) demonstrates that the word "deployment" in "quality function deployment" (QFD) is the implementation of the systematic diagram. The two types of deployments are the "ladder of abstraction, " which is the constituent-component-analysis diagram, and the "purpose and means deployment, " which is the plan-development diagram. There are many instances of each type of deployment throughout the many charts in "comprehensive QFD. In Japan, the depiction of a roof, or a sideline roof, on a QFD quality chart represents a deployment, rather than the correlation matrix used in the House of Quality in the USA. According to Mizuno (1988), the matrix diagram method clarifies problematic spots through multidimensional thinking...
The matrix diagram method identifies corresponding elements involved in a problem situation or event. These elements are arranged in rows and columns on a chart that shows the presence or absence of relationships among collected pairs of elements... Effective problem solving is facilitated at the intersection points, also refered to as the idea conception points... Matrix diagram are classified on the basis of their pattern into five groups: (1) the L-type matrix, (2) the T-type matrix, (3) the Y-type matrix, (4) the X-type matrix, and (5) the C-type matrix. Establish idea conception points for the development and improvement of system products Achieve quality deployment in product materials Establish and strengthen the quality assurance system by linking certified levels of quality with various control functions Reinforce and improve the efficiency of the quality evaluation system Pursue the causes of nonconformities in the manufacturing process Establish strategies about the mix of products to send to market by evaluating the relationships between the products and market situations matrix analysis method qualified and arranges matrix diagram data so that the information is easy to visualize and comprehend. The relationships between the elements shown in a matrix diagram are quantified by obtaining numerical data for intersection cells.
Of the seven new QC tools, this is the only numerical analysis method. The results of this technique, however, are presented in diagram form... One major technique that this method also utilizes is known as principal-components analysis. matrix data-analysis method can be used to Analyze production processes where factors are complexly intertwined Analyze causes of nonconformities that involve a large volume of data Grasp the desired quality level indicated by the results of a market survey Classify sensory characteristics systematically Accomplish complex quality evaluations According to Mizuno (1988), the PDPC method helps determine which processes to use to obtain desired results by evaluating the progress of events and the variety of conceivable outcomes.
Implementation plans do not always progress as anticipated. When problems, technical or otherwise, arise, solutions are frequently not apparent. The PDPC method, in response to these kinds of problems, anticipates possible outcomes and prepares countermeasures that will lead to the best possible solutions. Establish an implementation plan for management by objectives Establish an implementation plan for technology-development themes Establish a policy of forecasting and responding in advance to major events predicted in the system Implement countermeasures to minimize nonconformities in the manufacturing process Set up and select adjustment measures for negotiating process The PDPC diagram is a simple graphical tool which can be used to mitigate risk in virtually any undertaking. According to Mizuno (1988), the arrow diagram method establishes the most suitable daily plan and monitors its progress efficiently... The arrow diagram method utilized by PERT or CPM, is a network of lines that connect all the elements related to plan execution...
It is typically represented graphically by either a horizontal or vertical tree structure connecting the elements. The arrow diagram method can be used to Implement plans for new product development and its follow-up Develop product-improvement plans and follow-up activities Establish daily plans for experimental trials and follow-up activities Establish daily plans for increases in production and their follow-up activities Synchronize the preceding plans for QC activities Develop plans for a facility move and for monitoring follow-up Implement a periodic facility maintenance plan and its follow-up Analyze a manufacturing process and draw up plans for improved efficiency Plan and follow up QC inspections and diagnostic tests Plan and follow-up QC conferences and QC circle conferences. We literally cannot be competitive in international markets unless we can operationally define our customer's needs. In order to meet those needs and expectations at a price they are willing to pay, we must first know them. The purpose of the voice of the customer within quality function deployment (QFD) is to know the customer's expectations, voiced desires, and as yet unperceived turnon's. The purpose of QFD is to deploy the quality necessary to satisfy and even delight the customer.
Thus, obtaining the voice of the customer is the focal point of the QFD process. If an inaccurate representation of customer desires is obtained, the QFD process will fine tune the system to bring forth the wrong product. What a waste! Thus, obtaining the voice of the customer accurately is critical for the proper application of QFD. Guess work will not do! You must ask the customer!
To be accurate, scientific process is necessary! Gustafsson (1993) provides the relationships between QFD and conjoint analysis. Conjoint analysis is one of the seven product planning tools which Japanese Society for Quality Control Product Planning Research Group recommends be used to determine the voice of the customer through a scientific process. Barnard and Wallace (1994) integrate concepts from QFD and policy deployment into a process to deploy upper management strategy so that customer desires are met or exceeded. They also introduce the concept of choice modeling which appears to be a powerful means of determining the choice of the customer. Ultimately, it is the choice of the customer which determines whether or not the potential customers of the target market will actually buy the product or service.
The main 'process' benefits of using QFD are: improved communication and sharing of information within a cross-functional team charged with developing a new product. This team will typically include people from a variety of functional groups, such as marketing, sales, service, distribution, product engineering, process engineering, procurement, and production the identification of 'holes' in the current knowledge of the design team the capture and display of a wide variety of important design information in one place in a compact form support for understanding, consensus, and decision making, especially when complex relationships and trade-offs are involved the creation of an informational base which is valuable for repeated cycles of product improvement The main 'bottom line' benefits of using QFD are: greater likelihood of product success in the marketplace, due to the precise targeting of key customer requirements reduced overall design cycle time, mainly due to a reduction in time-consuming design changes. This is a powerful benefit: customer requirements are less likely to have changed since the beginning of the design project; and more frequent design cycles mean that products can be improved more rapidly than the competition reduced overall cost due to reducing design changes, which are not only time consuming but very costly, especially those which occur at a late stage. reduced product cost by eliminating redundant features and over-design. The History of Quality Function Deployment The creation of QFD is generally attributed to Mitsubishi's Kobe shipyard in Japan. The original approach, conceived in the late 1960 's, was adopted and developed by other Japanese companies, notably Toyota and its suppliers.
In 1986 a study by the Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers (JUSE) revealed that 54 % of 148 member companies surveyed were using QFD. The sectors with the highest penetration of QFD were transportation (86 %), construction (82 %), electronics (63 %), and precision machinery (66 %). Many of the service companies surveyed (32 %) were also using QFD. Specific design applications in Japan range from home appliances and clothing to retail outlets and apartment layouts. In the USA the first serious exponents of QFD were the 'big three' automotive manufacturers in the 1980 's, and a few leading companies in other sectors such as electronics. However, the uptake of QFD in the Western world appears to have been fairly slow.
There has been no survey comparable to the JUSE study regarding the spread of QFD in North America, and there are relatively few sources of literature and case studies, compared with other methodologies such as Benchmarking. There is also some reluctance among users of QFD to publish and share information - much more so than with other quality-related methodologies. This may be because the data captured and the decisions made using QFD usually relate to future product plans, and are therefore sensitive, proprietary, and valuable to competitors. Quality Function Deployment is a system engineering process which transforms the needs and requests of the customer / user into the specification required, at all project levels, to implement a high quality product.
It also provides the necessary tie ups between all project levels, to tie it all together and to manage it. It is an excellent method for assuring that the customer obtains high value from your product, actually the intended purpose of QFD. Quality, technology, Cost, and Reliability are the crucial elements of a good Quality Function Deployment. Bibliography:
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