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Example research essay topic: Anatomy - 2864 words

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Anatomy - is the study of the structure of the body parts & their Physiology - concerns with the function of the bodys structural Gross Anatomy - is the study of the large body structures visible to the naked eye. It can be approached in different ways. Regional Anatomy - is the study of all the structures in one particular Systematic Anatomy - is when anatomy is studied system by system. Surface Anatomy - is the study of the internal structures as they relate Microscopic Anatomy - is the study of structures too small to be seen They are usually divided into operations of specific organ systems. The Principle of Complementarity of structure & Function - Anatomy & Physiology are taught together because the functions always reflect the Chemical level - this includes atoms & molecules.

Cellular level - is the smallest unit of living things. Tissue level - are groups of similar cells that have a common function. Organ level - an organ is at least two tissues that perform a specific Organ System level - organs that work together to accomplish a Homework (pgs. 4-5) February 5,1999 Summary of the Bodys Organ Systems Integumentary System - forms of the external body covering; protects deeper body tissue from injury; synthesizes vitamin D; site of cutaneous (pain, pressure, ect.) receptors, & sweat & oil glands. Skeletal System - protects & supports body organs; provides the framework the muscles use to cause movement; blood cells are formed Muscular System - allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, & facial expression; maintains posture; produces heat.

Nervous System - fast-acting control system of the body; responds to internal & external changes of the body by activating appropriate Endocrine System - glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, & nutrient use (metabolism) by body Cardiovascular System - Blood vessels transport blood, which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, ect.; the heart pumps blood. Lymphatic System/Immunity - Picks up fluids leaked from blood vessels & returns it to the blood; disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream; houses white blood cells (lymphocytes) involved in immunity. The immune response mounts the attack against foreign substances Respiratory System - keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen & removes carbon dioxide; the gaseous exchange occurs through the Digestive System - breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to the body cells; indigestible foodstuffs are Urinary System - eliminates nitrogenous waste from the body; regulates water, electrolytes, & the acid-based balance in the blood. Male Reproductive System - overall function is the production of offspring. Testes produce sperm & male sex hormones; ducts & glands aid in delivery of sperm to the female reproductive tract.

Female Reproductive System - overall function is the production of offspring. Ovaries produce eggs & female sex hormones; remaining structures serve as sites for fertilization & the development of the fetus. Mammary glands of female breast produce milk to nourish the Classwork (pgs. 6-8) February 8, 1999 Maintaining Boundaries - keeps its internal environment separate from the external environment (ex.- skin or cell membrane). Movement - all activities promoted by the muscular system; on the cellular level, muscle cells contracting is called contractility. Responsiveness - irritability is the ability to sense changes in the Digestion - is the process of braking down ingested food into simple molecules that can be absorbed into the blood. Metabolism - all chemical reactions that occur within the body. Excretion - is the process of removing wastes from the body; usually Reproduction - the making more of an organism; occurs asexually The goal of the body system is to maintain life. There are several factors Nutrients - these contain the chemical substances used for energy & Oxygen - chemical reactions in the body require oxygen.

Water - is the single most abundant substance in your body. Homeostasis - is the bodys ability to maintain a relatively stable internal condition, even though the outside world changes. There are three factors in the homeostatic control organism: Receptor - sensor that monitors the environment. Control Center - analyzes input it receives & determines the Effector - provides the means to the response. Classwork (pgs. 8-13, & 16) February 9, 1999 Most of the homeostatic control mechanisms are negative feedback mechanisms. The net effect is that the output of the system shuts off the original stimulus (ex.- heat & air conditioning in houses & glucose regulating {pgs.

9 -10, fig. 1.5}). Positive feedback mechanisms, (often referred to as cascades) the result or response enhances the original stimulus so that the output (activity) is Used to designate specific areas within the major body divisions. Axial - part that makes up the main axis of the body; head, neck, & Appendicular - part that consists of the appendages or limbs; arms & In the study of Anatomy, the body is often sectioned along a flat surface called a plane. A section is named for the plane along which it is cut. Sagittal plane - a vertical plane that divides the body into left & right Median or Midsagittal plane - a vertical plane that lies directly in the Frontal or Coronal plane - a vertical plane that divides the body into Transverse or Horizontal plane - a horizontal plane that divide the body into superior & inferior parts; also called a cross section. Within the axial portion of the body are two large cavities.

They are closed to the out side & each contains internal organs. Dorsal Body Cavity - contains two divisions. Cranial cavity - within which the brain is encased by the skull. Vertebral or Spinal cavity - runs within in the bony vertebral & Ventral Body Cavity - contains two divisions. Thoracic cavity - surrounded by the ribs.

Pleural cavities - each houses a lung, & the medial mediastinum. Pericardial cavity - within the mediastinum, encloses the heart, & surrounds the thoracic organs (esophagus, trachea, Abdominopelvic cavity - a dome-shaped muscle important in Abdominal cavity - contains the stomach, spleen, liver, Pelvic cavity - contains the bladder, rectum, & reproductive Homework (pgs. 11-12, & 14) February 9, 1999 Homeostasis is so important that most disease is regarded as a result of its disturbance, a condition called homeostatic imbalance. As we age, our body organs & control systems become less efficient. As a result, our internal environment becomes less & less stable. These events place us at an even greater risk for illness & produce the changes we associate with Another important source of homeostatic imbalance occurs in certain pathological situations when the usual negative feedback mechanisms are overwhelmed & destroyed by the positive feedback mechanisms take over.

Some instances of heart failure reflect this phenomenon. Anatomical Position & Directional Terms To describe body parts & position accurately, we need an initial reference point & must use indications of direction. The anatomical reference point is a standard body position called anatomical position. In this position, the body is erect with feet together. The terms right & left refer to those sides of the cadaver or the person being viewed - not to those of the Directional terms allow us to explain exactly where one body structure is in relation to another.

Anatomical terminology saves words & is less ambiguous; anatomical meanings are very precise. Superior (cranial) - toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body; above. Example: The head is superior to the abdomen. Inferior (caudal) - away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below. Example: The navel is inferior to the Anterior (ventral) - toward or at the front of the body; in front of.

Example: The breastbone is anterior to the spine. Posterior (dorsal) - toward or the back of the body; behind. Example: The heart is posterior to the breastbone. Medial - toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of. Example: The heart is medial to the arm. Lateral - away from the midline of the body; on the outside of. Example: The arms are lateral to the chest.

Intermediate - Between a more medial & more lateral structure; Example: The collarbone is intermediate between the breastbone & the Proximal - Closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk. Example: The elbow is proximal Distal - farther from the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk. Example: The knee is distal to Superficial - Toward or at the body surface. Example: The skin is superficial to the skeletal muscles. Deep - away from the body surface; more internal. Example: The lungs Classwork (pg. 17) February 10, 1999 Membranes in the Ventral Body Cavity The walls of the ventral body cavity & the outer surfaces of the organs it contains are covered by serous membrane.

The one lining the cavity wall is the parietal serosa, which folds on itself to form the visceral serosa {pg. 17, fig. 1.10} for all the cavities. Oral & Digestive cavity - oral cavity, commonly called the mouth Nasal cavity - located within & posterior to the nose. Orbital cavities - house the eyes & present them in an anterior Middle Ear cavities - carved into the temporal bone of the skull lie just medial to the eardrum; contain tiny bones that transmit sound Synovial cavities - are joint cavities; enclosed within fibrous capsules that surround freely movable joints of the body (ex.- elbow & knee Classwork (pgs.

109-113, 119,132, 134 ) February 12, 1999 Histology is the study of tissues, it complements the study of gross anatomy. Tissues are groups of cells that are similar in structure & perform a common function. Tissues are organizations of similar cells that are surrounded & often embedded in a nonliving intercellular material Epithelial tissue - is a sheet of cells that covers & protects the body surface; lines body cavities; moves substances in & out of the blood; & Connective tissue - supports the body & connects body parts; found Muscle tissue - produce most types of body movement. Nervous tissue - most complex body tissue; specializes in communication between various parts of the body. Protection - the skin protects the body from mechanical, chemical, & Sensory Functions - skin, nose, eyes. & ears.

Excretion - found in the lining of the kidneys tubule makes it possible. Filtration - also in kidneys; filters blood so it can be excreted. Secretion - secretes hormones, mucus, digestive juices, & sweat. Absorption - found in the lining of the gut & respiratory tract. This allows for absorption of nutrients from the gut; & exchange of gases Each epithelium is given two names.

The first name indicates the # of cell layers present; the second describes the shape of its cells. The simple epithelia are concerned with absorption, secretion, & filtration. Protection is not one of their specialties. Simple Squamous Epithelium - their cells are flattened laterally & their cytoplasm is spares; in a surface view, it resembles a tiled floor, perpendicularly they resemble fried eggs. This epithelium is found were filtration or the exchange of substances by rapid diffusion is a priority.

Simple Cuboidal Epithelium - consists of a single layer of cubical cells & its spherical nuclei is stained darkly; looks like a string of beads when viewed microscopically. It functions are excretion & absorption. Simple Columnar Epithelium - seen a as a single layer of tall, closely packed cells, aligned like soldiers in a row. Mostly associated with absorption & secretion. It lines the digestive tract from the stomach to Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium - cells vary in height & rest on the basement membrane, but only the tallest reach the apical surface of the epithelium; the nuclei are located at different levels above the basement, thus giving a false (pseudo) impression.

They secrete & Homework (pgs. 109-110) February 12, 1999 Special Characteristics of Epithelium Epithelial tissues have many characteristics that distinguish them from Cellularity. - Epithelial tissue is composed almost entirely of close-packed cell. Only a tiny amount of extracellular material lies in Specialized contacts. - Epithelial cells fit closely together to form continuous sheet. Adjacent cells are bound together at many points by lateral contacts, including tight junctions & desmosomes. Polarity.

- All epithelia have an apical surface, a free surface exposed to the body exterior or the cavity of an internal organ, & an attached basal surface. All epithelia exhibit polarity, meaning that cells near the apical surface differ from those at the basal surface in both structure & Although some apical surfaces are smooth & slick, most have microvilli, finger like extensions of the plasma membrane. Microvilli tremendously increase the exposed surface area, & in epithelia that absorb or secrete substances, the microvilli are often so dense that the cell apices have a fuzzy appearance called a brush border. Some epithelia, such as that lining the trachea, have motile cilia that propel substances among their surfaces. Lying adjacent to the basal surface of an epithelium is a thin supporting sheet called the basal lamina.

This noncellular, adhesive sheet consists largely of glycoproteins secreted by the epithelial cells. Functionally, the basal lamina acts as a selective filter; that is, it determines which molecules diffusing from the underlying connective tissue will be allowed to enter the epithelium. The basal lamina also acts as a scaffolding along which epithelial cells can migrate to repair a Supported by connective tissue. - All epithelial sheets rest upon & are supported by connective tissue. Just deep to the basal lamina is the reticular lamina, a layer of extracellular material containing a fine network of collagen protein fibers that belong to the underlying connective tissue.

Together the two laminae form the membrane basement. The basement membrane reinforces the epithelial sheet, helping it to resist stretching & tearing forces, & defines the epithelial boundary. An important characteristic of cancerous epithelial cells is their failure to respect this boundary, which they penetrate to invade the Innervated but avascular. - Although epithelium is innervated (supplied by nerve fibers), it is avascular (contains no blood vessels). Epithelial cells are nourished by substances diffusing from blood vessels in the Regeneration. - Epithelium has a high regenerative capacity.

Some epithelia are exposed to friction & their surface cells removed by abrasion. Others are damaged by hostile substances in the external environment (bacteria, acid, smoke). As long as epithelial cells receive adequate nutrition, they can replace lost cells rapidly by cell division. Classwork (pgs. 115-118) February 16, 1999 Stratified epithelia consists of two or more cell layers. Stratified Squamous Epithelium - is the most widespread of the stratified; found in the exterior part of the skin.

Stratified Cuboidal & Stratified Columnar - are rare; usually found in Transitional Epithelium - found in the lining of urinary organs. Transitional epithelium can change shape in order to stretch. Epithelium of the glandular type is specialized for secretory activity. All glands are classified as exocrine or endocrine. Exocrine glands - discharge their secretory products into ducts (ex.

Endocrine glands - are ductless; they discharge their secretions Multicellular exocrine glands have two structural elements: ducts & secretory units. On the basis of their duct structures they are either simple glands - single unbranched ducts or compound glands - that have a branched duct. Then they are further described according to their Functional Classifications of Exocrine Glands. Methods by which they discharge. Three types: Apocrine Glands - collect their products near the tips of the cell & then they release into a duct by pinching of (ex. mammary glands).

Holocrine Glands - collect inside the cells & then they rupture (ex. Merocrine Glands - discharge directly through the cell membrane (ex. Homework (pgs. 119) February 16, 1999 Unicellular exocrine glands are single cells scattered in am epithelial sheet amid cells with other functions. They have no ducts.

In humans, all such glands produce mucin, a complex glycoprotein that dissolves in water when secreted. Once dissolved, mucin forms mucus, a slimy coating that both protects & lubricates surfaces. The only important unicellular glands in humans are the goblet cells found sprinkled in the columnar epithelium cells lining the intestinal & respiratory tracts. Although unicellular glands probably outnumber multicellular glands, unicellular glands are the less Classwork (pgs. 119, 122-126) February 17, 1999 Connective Tissue is the most abundant tissue. Its major functions are: Common Characteristics of Connective Tissue Common origin - derived from the mesoderm.

Degrees of vascularity; some are vascularized, others are not. Extracellular matrix - this separates the living cells of the tissue. The first is divided into four groups. Loose Ordinary Tissue (Areolar) - found between other tissues or other organs; used in connection; it is a fluid. Adipose Tissue (Fat) - found under the skin & as padding at various points.

Used for protection, insulation, & a reserve for food. Reticular Tissue - slender branching of reticular fibers forms the framework for the spleen, lymph nodes, & bone marrow; look like little strings that run in all directions. Dense Fibrous Tissue - tendons & ligaments; they are bundles or callagenous fibers in parallel rows in a fluid matrix; they are thicker The second class of connective tissue contains cartilage - has qualities intermediate between dense fibrous connective tissue & bone. It is avascular (no bloods run through it) & has no nerves. Hyaline Cartilage - is the most abundant tissue type in the body; provides firm support with some pliability. Elastic Cartilage - nearly identically like hyaline cartilage, but has more elastin fibers which gives this tissue a greater tolerance for Fibrocartilage - (fibrous cartilage) often found where hyaline cartilage meets a true ligament or tendon.

Found where strong support & ability to withstand heavy pressure are required. Homework (pgs. 120-122) February 17, 1999 Structural Elements of Connective Ti ...

Related: anatomy, anatomy physiology, white blood cells, urinary system, ligament

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