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Management accounting assures managers with the needed information to make the decision-making process easy, to provide motivation for their behavior and actions in needed direction, and to push forward the effectiveness of the organization. It helps managers in implementing their responsibilities for planning, controlling, and decision-making by disclosing them exactly what information is necessary, how it can be generated, and used. With the help of management accounting techniques, including profit planning and cost allocation, managers are able to decide which methods to use in gathering and accumulating accounting information. It is also of great value when this information is investigated and introduced in respect to particular problems, decisions and everyday running of business. The time has passed and the international business operations have greatly extended. International frontiers are intensively more obvious to the course of goods and cervices.
Large number of corporations have transferred their operations from just one foreign domestic market to operating a global market. This means that todays corporations produce and distribute their goods and cervices in the markets throughout activity centers on all continents. This is also the reason for the principal structure of corporations and the way they lead their processes and functions to change. The direction toward globalization has influenced managerial as well as financial accounting, so that international accounting standards must be set forth. To run business efficiently, managers should be conscious of and comprehend completely how to cope with the summons of international business operations, such as, exhibiting to different currencies, adjusting and establishing transfer prices for commodities shifting among affiliates in various nations, bargains and removal profits and losses, the methods to oppose potential losses when operating with great deal of currencies, and managerial administrating and sating future goals and activities.
The notion of management accounting in Great Britain takes its roots in a more industrial manufacturing economy and goes far to more cervical-oriented economy. Nevertheless, the foundation of management accounting lies in the U. K. and dates back to eighteens century. They were introduced by the industrial revolution. More precisely, when the industrial revolution appeared to be of great value and importance to the countrys economy.
Great deal of research have been accomplished on this subject. All of them stated that management accounting dates back to the late 1700 s in Britain. These investigations processed historical data on firms in the end of 1700 s and beginning of 1800 s that supposes companies brought in industrial accounting (similar to cost and management accounting) to exploit pricing polices to be determined to particular products. It means that management accounting is originated in the U. K. for about one hundred years before that of the industrial revolution in the United States.
In Britain management accounting is considered to be a professional, critical experience appropriate to become engaged in the deciding on the exact timing of operations, and the unfolding, connecting, and delivering the strategic purpose. Managers in Britain are greatly implicated in management accounting practices, that I am going to devote attention to later in this work. Though management accounting is of great importance and influence on running a business, it also has some complexities to come across. One aspect that has been opposing management accounting practices recently is the introduction the Euro, a currency common to all the members of the European Union. In the case Britain considers it is important to enter the union, a lot of aspects will need to be taken into consideration regarding different methods of management accounting. In the article on the subject of management accounting, the author stresses some of these points.
Managers will have to make it certain that their objectives are unfolded for: Re-establishing their financial current and longterm accounts into new currency; Handling with the problem of establishing pricing polices regarding euros. Coping with legal issues and probable tax problems created by the European Union. All those three problems are decisive for competitiveness and economic growth in Britain as well as its main partner-countries. It will happen as far as the introduction of the euro will not only make easier the comparisons of price in the countries of European Union, but will also complicate the process of establishing rightness of the different pricing polices of one firm in a variety of countries-members of European Union. Through all its history management accounting has been considered as being very inflexible and bureaucratic. Management accounting methods have appeared to be rather compound and ineffective as compared the cervical-based economy to the product-based on.
This notion has become of great importance especially in the last twenty years as the shift form the products to services is obvious. Nevertheless, new tendencies and resolutions have been unfolded towards this problem. One of such improvements is the growth of sales of combining software, which makes the accomplishment of more compound management accounting techniques in different firms easy. There is a great number of management accounting techniques used in todays business world. Most of them develop continually form more industrialized direction to more of an information and service-based economy. These processes are the same for countries of the European Union as well as for the United States and Britain.
Techniques for the other countries are also the same in many ways. The most vividly used are: costing techniques, budgeting, and value-based management. Costing techniques is of great importance to any kind of economy. Defining the pricing policy for the products or cervices a firm provides is significant regardless the country where it is produced or distributed. Usually the cost of the product is set as a current asset until sold, as far as the cost of production is the only aspect incurred in the very cost of the product.
The other non-manufacturing costs are entered as recurring costs and have to be subtracted in the period in which they were undertaken. More over, a few techniques of product costing have been worked out for different kinds of industries. Job Production - this happens when all the product is various. The costs stated in a job sheet are straight raw materials, straight labor force, straight expenses, and overhead. Contract Production is called contract costing as well.
It resembles much the job costing, with the difference that contract production is on a greater scale and usually is more timely process. Batch Production is the process in which products are manufactured in groups, but when it is over they can be divided into separate products. It resembles job costing; but the mean cost is applied to every product. Process Production is usually called process costing.
It consists of the uninterrupted flow of products being produced with no defined end point. Costs can be discerned to a department to set the average product cost. How to estimate indirect costs not tied to a product is one more significant point of product costing. The techniques experienced in the U. K. to distribute overhead are by utilizing soaking up or variable costing.
Laws authorize that for financial accounting goals only soaking up costing methods are to be used. One other up-to-date unfolding in deciding allocation of overhead is processes based costing. In the 1980 s in the U. K. some firms were discontented with how overheads were being distributed. Determined labor hours were still being utilized for the most firms, though these costs really were not that weighty part of the total cost of producing a good.
Thus, a lot of companies in the U. K. have acquired the use of activity based costing to guaranty a more precise and careful distribution of overhead to products. For planning and controlling activities in organizations budgeting is of great significance. Managers usually need to form and schedule particular objectives and introduce them into the process of budgeting. There are three general steps in this process: Establishing the budget, in which budgets are composited in order to meet responsibility standards in deliberation with the responsible managers; Giving accounts and reports, in which the personnel for whom goals have been established are supported with information comparing real performance with the one forecasted by budgets; Revision, in which budgets may be reviewed provided that the terms and conditions of operations changed during the given period, or as a foundation for the comming period.
There are some different techniques used by managers in the budgeting process. They consist of master budgets, the budget balance sheet, the budgeted cash flow, capital expenditure budget, and cash budgets. No doubt some supplementary methods of budgeting are also used by British firms for planning and controlling operations. In Britain One new technique in management accounting has been the implementation of the value-based management notion.
It is becoming very popular as companies understand that all their operations add (or subtract) value for the shareholders and stakeholders. Value-based management can be explained in the terms of binding business objectives and managerial judgements to their influence on shareholder value. In Britain customers are not the only group considered to be shareholders, employees are viewed as shareholders too. Giving value to the stakeholders and shareholders is important in long-term evolution and trial for a company. There are following advantages of the usage of value-based management: Settles objectives for management activities with the help of recognition of a handful of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs); Sets and communicates language and goals common for the whole group or company; Makes stresses for all the personnel on important objectives and emphasizes unproductive work; Fulfills th functions of an umbrella framework for other initiatives; Determines priorities to the distribution of materials and funds; Provides motivation for workers with the help of incentives guided by value creation.
Firms should estimate all their activities and state which ones give value to the company. Different steps to perform this lie upon on the kind of industry and product a company produces. In Britain, a lot of firms have ensured this notion to be apt and useful. This theory as well as already mentioned ones has tried to emphasize some of the more distinguished techniques used in corporations as well as prescribe some historical underground into the unfolding of management accounting in the U. K.
References: Signs of the End of the Recession for Accountancy? Management Accounting. Vol. 72 Iss. 7 July/Aug. 1994 P 4. New Frame for Financial Management. Management Accounting. Vol. 72 Iss. 4 April 1994 P 20 - 22.
Anderson, Alan & Nix, Eileen. (1994). Effective accounting management: a skills and activity-based approach. Szilagyi, A. D & Wallace, M. J (1983) Organisational Behaviour and Performance 3 rd Edition. Accountancy, July, 1994, p. 49. 15.
Hopwood A. G. , ? Accounting & Organization Change, Journal of Accounting & Public Policy, Vol. 8, No. 3, Fall 1989.
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