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Example research essay topic: X Ray Nobel Prize - 1,955 words

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Best Candidate Introduction There has been a trend within recent years to foster the use of digital technologies in our life. Medicine is no exception to the rule, as it continues to use new generation of equipment, which uses the state-of-the-art digital technologies aimed to facilitate obtaining and processing data. This trend develops dynamically, and digital x-ray diagnostics becomes the most technologically advanced direction in the medicine. The paper explores the history of x-ray, the history of digital x-ray technology, and the different types of x-ray technology (CR, DR, and CCD Array).

Taking into account information obtained, the paper then dwells on the kind of employees required to be attracted (CIS, radiology backgrounds, and necessary skills, to mention a few). Finally, the paper undertakes an attempt to make a forecast concerning the use of x-ray in the future (e. g. x-ray involving movement). The History of X-Rays The history of radio diagnosis or X-ray diagnosis is almost synonymous to the name of Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen (1845 1923), the professor of physics and the director of the Physical Institute of the University of Wurburg (Andriole 124). It was him, who announced the world about the discovery of new type of rays, known as x-rays.

This discovery took place in 1895. There is no need to go into particulars of Rontgen's biography, but it is important to admit that it was Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen, who was the first Nobel Prize winner in physics. He won Nobel Prize in 1901 due to his x-ray discovery. It should be said in all fairness that he was not the first scientist, who discovered the phenomenon of x-rays, as he was not the first one, who knew about their existence and wasnt the first scientist, who used them in his practice to get an image. The inexorable facts witness about this. The first images in cathode rays were first processed in Baku in 1884.

Similar to America Vespucci, who didnt know about his discovery of America, x-ray technology was kept in hands over a long period of time, without knowing about it. Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen is famous not only for discovery of unknown type of rays, but also for his discovery of the methods of radio diagnosis or X-ray diagnosis. In case the person holds his hand between discharge tube and the screen, dark tissues and bones can be visibly seen in the dark outlines of his hand. This was the first description of the first roentgenoscope of human body, conducted and described by Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen. Since his discovery the art of X-ray diagnosis experiences the stage of rapid growth and development. The perspective of the use of X-rays in medicine was so obvious that the introduction of X-ray is immediately followed by the companies producing roentgenoscope equipment.

In the very beginning of the century the medicine preferred using Berlin roentgenoscope equipment. Although it was far from excellence, they allowed making fairly good x-ray images. It is interesting to note that at the dawn of the age of X-ray diagnosis the medics preferred roentgenoscope (the person had the opportunity to see the image in the screen, but, in order to record the image, the person had to draw it by hand). Partially it was explained by primary use of x-rays in surgery (Andriole 126), where they often were used directly before the surgical intervention, relatively high cost of the image, and the fact that the person had no use to store the results of x-ray diagnosis for use in the future. Further development of X-ray diagnosis resulted not only in the enhancement of technologies, but also in the rapid development of different directions in radiology, along with different methods of research different organs, tissues, and systems. This period is known for development of the art of diagnosis for almost every branch of medicine: X-ray osteology, cardiology, angio logia, pulmonology, gastroenterology, hepatology, neuroradiology, radio urology, radio nephrology, obstetric-gynecologic radiology, and X-ray mammalogy, to mention a few.

It is important to notice that, although the development of these directions occurred during the first 10 - 20 years after the discovery of X-ray phenomenon, up until this point the development of these technologies continues to occur. In classical X-ray equipment the scientists worked predominantly to enhance the quality of X-ray tubes photographic film, which were unable to change film speed and the parameters of their sensitivity significantly. Naturally, it became the obstacle on the way to future progress and to a certain extent slowed down the development of new kinds of X-ray diagnosis (Luo 149). Yet, it is important to admit that there have been drastic changes within recent years. It is possible to assert that the history of radiology knows no other period of drastic changes that can be compared to the present. When the scientists almost refused from further researchers, as it seemed the diagnostic possibilities of the X-ray method are merely exhausted, the new technologies made a real break-up.

No one could expect the incredible intervention of the scientific and technical progress in classical radiology. Yet, the new digital technologies allowed reducing the radiation dose and making it ten times lesser compared to the previous obsolete methods of diagnostics. At the same time, digital technologies allowed improving quality and information value of the image, to extend the range of application, and to cut down costs. Digital technologies made X-ray diagnosis the XXI century radiology.

X-Ray Imaging The basic principle of radiology and roentgenoscope involves formation of digital information value of the image on photographic film or fluorescence-bright screen by dots. The optical density of these dots reflects the extent of the absorptance (the extent, to which the object under examination is able to absorb X-rays). Low quantum efficiency of the photographic film requires using higher exposure dose. In its turn, it results in excessive radioactive irradiation of the patient. At the same time, as the dynamic range of the photographic film is relatively narrow, the X-ray image is unable to fully reflect soft and hard tissues. Moreover, it adds complexity to the choice of optimum exposition.

It is necessary to take into account low cost of digital X-ray compared to the traditional technique. The expenses for photochemical process and photo developing technique continue to increase, and thus become the determining factor for many clinics, hospitals and other medical institutions. No wonder that high price factor predetermines the interest in cheaper X-ray imaging. Besides, there is another negative aspect of using traditional X-ray technology in CRT/film radiology. The subject at issue is that medical laboratories face difficulties when they have to store film archives.

According to the world statistics, more than 20 per cent of X-ray patterns are lost (or are difficult to obtain in time) during storage. Besides, radiologists work often depends on the process of film development. In its turn, the development requires additional time. The X-ray image cannot be transmitted or sent to somebody else.

Spoilage and bad quality may also ruin the entire work and force the radiologist to make additional X-ray images. Naturally, it leads to re-examination, causes repeated radioactive irradiation and labor input. Analogue electron optical intensification of the image is another method used by radiologists during the process of X-ray examination. The process is quite simple. First the image appears on the fluorescent screen; then it goes through X-ray image amplifier. X-ray image amplifier increases the luminance a thousand times, and then the image is fixed by the acceptance TV camera.

When the camera receives the x-ray image, it shows the x-ray image on screen and/ or videotape recorder. The advantages of this method are obvious, as it increases quantum activity, and decreases the irradiation dose. Yet, spatially distinguishing power of the image is not so good compared to radiology. Digital X-ray Imaging As far as digital x-ray imaging becomes the most efficient method of diagnosis, the successful candidate should understand the nature of digital x-ray image processing.

So, it is necessary to clarify the phenomenon of digital x-ray imaging. The term digital x-ray imaging is related to all methods of x-ray projections, when the image appears and then processed through computer or computer centre. The main aim of computer resources is to transform x-ray relief vie detector into digital data sets. The principle of digital imaging is similar to all basic methods of digital x-ray imaging. In case we calculate the average optical density for each flat area of analogue image, and attach corresponding digital values, we will receive an image as digital matrix (Belikova 614 - 626).

The unit of digital image area is called pixel (neologism pix = picture, and cell - cell). Every pixel has its own spatial coordinates (row and column). The computers memory contains information about optical density and pixels spatial coordinates. This information is stored in binary system (in bytes).

Spatially distinguishing power of traditional X-ray filming is stipulated by the physical qualities of x-ray film, fluorescent screens, and geometrical movement (motion) artifacts, while in digital x-ray imaging it depends on the size of pixel. In its turn, it predetermines the size of detectors and image matrix. The image matrix is formed in square matrix. The size of its pixels is proportional to 2. Correspondingly, the image matrix can comprise of 512 512, 1024 1024 (1 K), 2048 2048 (2 K), or 4096 4096 (4 K) pixels (Belikova 614 - 626). For example, the image is formed in the matrix 1024 1024, it requires four times more memory compared to matrix 512 512 (Belikova 614 - 626).

From here is follows that the cost of memory volume (reckoned on the basis of one x-ray image) also increases along with the time required to digitize the x-ray image, record x-ray image data, and transmit digital data. In such a way, there is a rule widely applied during digital x-ray imaging: the image should be detailed so far so it is necessary, and blurred so it is permissible. As far as radiologist often faces the necessity to make an x-ray image with soft (low-contrast) objects, he should understand that the main factor for soft object imaging is contrast distinguishing power determined by bit-pixel correlation. For example, the x-ray image that contains 256 color shades requires eight bit per one pixel (Belikova 614 - 626). In different cases the volume of this information may vary from 8 to 16 bit per pixel.

High resolution capacity of the equipment allows examining the object in more dynamic scale, when the x-ray digital image is shown in the screen. It means that digital systems allow making the images of soft and hard tissues with relatively high distinguishing capacity by contrast range (scale of gradations), that is to say that digital systems allow distinguishing a rich variety of grey scale gradations. In practice, spatially distinguishing power is determined by quantity of linear pairs that could be noticed in 1 mm (the unit of measurement line pairs/ mm). For example, the X-ray picture of the boundary area requires the highest spatially distinguishing power 20 line pairs per millimeter. Correspondingly, the system screen- film requires 8 - 10 line pairs/ mm (Belikova 614 - 626). The equipment, where X-ray image amplifier is used, requires about 1 - 2 line pairs/ mm.

Finally, spatially distinguishing power in digital X-ray imaging depends on detectors and pixel size, and ranges from 0. 7 to 4 - 5 line pairs/ mm (Belikova 614 - 626). Despite the assumption that digital image has lower quality compared to analogue image due to low spatially distinguishing power, digital imaging still has many advantages. The most important feature of digital imaging is high contrast distinguishing power in wide distinctive data span. By the principle of image detection the systems of digital X-ray imaging (including...


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