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... by comparison. In many ways, the bond forged between soldiers in trench warfare is the only romanticized element to Remarque's novel.All Quiet on the Western Front - Chapter 6SummaryThe Second Company returns to the front two days early. On their way, they pass a shelled schoolhouse. Fresh coffins are piled by the dozens next to it. They make jokes to distance themselves from the unpleasant knowledge that the coffins were made for them.
At the front, they listen to the enemy transports and guns. They detect that the enemy is bringing troops to the front, and they can hear that the English have strengthened their artillery. The men are disheartened by this knowledge as well as the fact that their own shells are beginning to fall in the trenches. The barrels on the guns are worn out.The soldiers can do nothing but wait. Chance determines much of their luck or misfortune. Once, Paul left one dug-out to visit friends in another.
When he returned to the first, it had been completely demolished by a direct hit. He returned to the second only to discover that it had been buried.The soldiers have to fight the fat, aggressive rats to protect their food. Large rations of cheese and rum are doled out to the men, a bad sign. Every man receives numerous grenades and ample ammunition. They also remove the bayonet blades with a saw on one edge. The enemy kills anyone caught with this kind of weapon on sight.
Kat is in bad spirits. Paul knows this is a bad sign since Kat has an uncanny sense for knowing what will happen on the front.Days pass before the bombs begin to fall. No attack comes right away, but the bombs continue to fall. Attempts to deliver food to the dug-outs fail. Even Kat fails to scrounge something. They settle down to wait. Eventually, a new recruit cracks and attempts to leave. Kat and Paul have to beat him into submission.
Later, the dug-out suffers a direct hit. Luckily, the shell is a light one, so the concrete holds up against it. Three recruits crack, and one actually escapes the dug-out. Before Paul can retrieve him, a shell whistles through the air and smashes the escaped recruit to bits. They have to bind one to subdue him. Everyone else tries to play cards, but no one can concentrate on the game.Finally, the shelling lessens. The attack has come. Paul and his comrades throw grenades out of the dug-out before jumping out.
The French attackers suffer heavy losses from the German machine guns and grenades. The soldiers kill with a mindless fury after days of waiting helplessly in the dark while the bombs fell above them. The Germans repel the attack and reach the enemy lines. They wreak havoc and destruction before grabbing all the provisions they can carry. They run back to their position to rest for an hour. They devour the tins of food they have gathered. The enemy is far better provisioned than they are.Later, Paul stands watch.
Memories of the past come to him. They are always calm and quiet because calm and quiet are so distant on the front. The memories bring sorrow rather than desire. In the trenches, desire for the past is unattainable because they are cut off completely from that world. The soldiers are dead men walking. Days pass while dead men accumulate between the two warring sides.
Paul and his comrades listen to one man's death throes for three days. They are unable to locate him despite their best efforts. The new recruits figure heavily in the dead and wounded. The reinforcements sent to replace them have had little training, and they drop like flies on the front. They are younger than ever before.During an attack, Paul finds Himmelstoss in a dugout, pretending to be wounded. Paul forces him out with blows and threats.
They rush forward with the attack. The old hands try to teach some of the new recruits some combat tricks and knowledge during the hours of rest. They forget it when the fighting begins again. Haie Westhus receives a fatal wound. When the Second Company is relieved, only thirty-two are left of the original one hundred fifty men. CommentaryThe conditions in the trenches are nearly unimaginable for those who have never known war.
First, the trenches stank. Soldiers slept, ate, and defecated in the same trenches. Bodies lay rotting by the hundreds of thousands in No Man's Land and in the trenches themselves. The rotting corpses attracted legions of rats. They grew large, fat, and extremely aggressive. Not only did they compete with soldiers for food, but they also occasionally overpowered and ate wounded men who could not defend themselves.The rats, lice, feces, and corpses in and around the trenches provided a paradise for disease-causing microbes. Men who stood for hours in the filthy, water-logged trenches without changing their socks or drying their boots for hours developed trench foot.
The victim gradually lost the sensation in his feet while the skin turned red or blue. Untreated trench foot could lead to gangrene which almost certainly mean amputation. Moreover, owing the difficulty in delivering food and water to the trenches during bombardments, soldiers often had to resort to drinking the filthy water in the trenches.It is important to remember that The Great War occurred before the discovery of antibiotics, and that a shortage of medical supplies such as antiseptics, clean bandages, and painkillers quickly became a problem. In hospitals with particularly bad shortages, doctors and nurses were forced to use salt to disinfect wounds. Imagine having a handful of salt rubbed into a wound or an amputated stump without the benefit of adequate painkillers.World War I was the first war in which the killing did not often involve seeing the enemy face to face. It was also the first war in which the enemy was demonized through an intense, organized campaign of propaganda.
De-humanizing the enemy made killing him more palatable. The weapons were designed to maim and kill as many people as possible. Moreover, they were designed to cause horrific deaths in order to terrorize the remaining enemy survivors and demoralize their fighting spirit. Grenades, machine guns, poison gas, shells, and saw bayonets were just a few common weapons.Before modern trench warfare, inventive military strategies and sweeping victories were possible. The Great War quickly became characterized by battles of attrition. The goal was not "victory," but to wear down the enemy's ability to attack or even continue the war. The strategy was basic. The attacking side bombarded enemy trenches relentlessly, sometimes for up to a week. The death toll from bombardment compared to the death toll in the actual attack was comparatively low. The Germans in particular built strong bomb-proof dugouts, although those built later were of lesser quality.
After the bombardment, a wave of attacking soldiers advanced on the enemy trenches.Unfortunately, the defending side knew the attack was coming the moment the bombing ended. They manned their machine guns and mowed down the attacking soldiers. The result was an ever-growing collection of bodies in No Man's Land. The major battles of attrition in The Great War resulted in hundreds of thousands of casualties. There really was no "victor" because the gains usually meant a few hundred yards of ground. Generally, they ended in stalemates with an unprecedented cost in human lives and human suffering.The soldiers not only faced the constant threat of physical injury and death.
They faced intense psychological stress. During bombardments, they often huddled for days in crowded dugouts. The weight of uncertainty wore down a soldier's mental reserves because mere chance often determined his survival or his death. When other soldiers cracked, the remaining soldiers had even more difficulty remaining calm. They saw every imaginable form of damage to the human body. They listened to the death throes of the wounded and dying in No Man's land. Often, they were unable to retrieve the victims, and some of them took days to die.
They suffered the trauma of being buried alive when their dugouts were hit by enemy shells.Early in the war, doctors noticed a condition they later termed "shell shock." In our time, shell shock is called post-traumatic stress syndrome, a recognized psychological disorder. In World War I, the army was not very sympathetic to shell shock victims, accusing them of cowardice or weakness. Some of the victims never recovered. Other soldiers, unable to withstand the relentless wear on their mental reserves, committed suicide by shooting themselves or walking directly into enemy fire.Paul's description of the German response to the attack leaves no doubt as to the decidedly unromantic nature of trench warfare. The Germans rout the enemy from their own trenches. However, they do not achieve this success out of patriotic fervor or bravery. They are men driven to the brink of insanity. They savagely kill and maim the attackers, not because they are enemies of the fatherland, but because they can do nothing else to release the anxiety, stress, and terror of days long bombardment.Despite the fantastic success of the German soldier's defense, there are numerous clues in this chapter that Germany is losing the war.
The English and the French have increased the strength of their artillery, but the German weapons are worn so badly that the shells often fall into German trenches, killing German soldiers. The new recruits are younger than ever before, and they have had scant training. As a result, they die in numbers five to ten times higher than experienced soldiers. Germany is running out of able-bodied adult men. The soldiers are being killed and wounded at such a rate that they cannot even effectively train the boys they send to replace the men they have lost.Both sides of the conflict were guilty of sending horrendously undertrained boys to die senselessly in trench warfare. Countries entertained the idea that it was romantic and heroic that young boys died for their country.
There are records of children as young as twelve and thirteen serving as soldiers in the war. Remarque bitterly illustrates that they died defending nothing because they were too young and too unprepared to defend their own lives much less their country.All Quiet on the Western Front - Chapter 7SummaryThe Second Company is sent to a depot for re-organization. Himmelstoss tries to make good with them after having been to the front. He becomes generous with food and easy jobs for them, and even wins Tjaden over. Good food and rest are enough to make a soldier content. Away from the trenches he makes vulgar jokes as usual. Otherwise, there is no hope for him.
Over time, his humorous jests become more bitter. He flees madness in a losing race.Paul, Leer, and Kropp meet three women while they are swimming. They communicate with them in broken French, indicating that they have food. They are forbidden to cross the canal, and the women are not allowed to do so either. Later that night, they gather some food and swim across, wearing nothing more than their boots. The women throw them clothing.
Despite the language barrier, they chatter endlessly. They call the soldiers, "poor boys." Paul is inexperienced, but he yields to desire. He hopes to recapture a piece of his innocence and youth with a woman who does not belong to the army brothels.Paul receives seventeen days of leave. Afterwards, he has to report to a training base. He returns to the front in six weeks. He wonders how many of his friends will survive six weeks. The woman on the other side of the canal is not interested to hear about his leave. If he were going to the front, it would be more exciting.When Paul reaches his home town, he finds that his mother is ill with cancer. The civilian population is slowly starving.
He cannot shake a feeling of "strangeness." He no longer feels at home in his family's house. His mother asks if it was "very bad out there." Paul lies to her. He has no words to describe his experiences that she would understand.A Major becomes angry that Paul does not salute him in the street. As a punishment, he forces Paul to do a march in the street and salute smartly. Paul wishes to avoid further such incidents, so he begins wearing civilian clothing. Paul's father, unlike his mother, keeps asking him questions. He does not understand that it is dangerous for Paul to put his experiences into words.
Others who do not ask questions take too much pride in their silence. Sometimes, the tramcars' screeching startles him because they sound like shells. Paul sits in his bedroom with his books and pictures, trying to recapture the feelings of youth and desire, but the memories are only shadows. His identity as a soldier is the only thing to which he can cling.Paul learns from a fellow classmate, Mittelstaedt, now a training officer, that Kantorek has been called up a territorial. When he met Kantorek, Mittelstaedt lorded his authority as a superior officer over his old schoolmaster. He bitterly reminded Kantorek that he preached Joseph Behm into enlisting against the boy's wishes.
He would have been called within three months anyway. As a result, Joseph died three months sooner than he would have otherwise. Mittelstaedt arranged to be placed in charge of Kantorek's company and takes every chance to humiliate him, miming Kantorek's old admonitions as a schoolmaster.Paul's mother becomes sadder as the end of his leave looms closer. Paul visits Kemmerich's mother to deliver the news of her son's death. She demands to know how he died, but Paul lies to her by telling her he died quickly with little pain and suffering. He swears by everything he holds "sacred."Paul's mother sits with him in his bedroom the last night of his leave.
He tried to pretend that he is asleep, but he notes that she is in great physical pain. He urges her to return to bed. Paul wishes he could weep in her lap and die with her. He wishes he had never come on leave because it only awakens pain for himself and his mother. CommentaryPaul, Leer, and Kropp's liaison with the three French women is an important symbolic event in All Quiet on the Western Front. Most of Paul's sexual experiences have occurred in the army brothels. The character of his sexual experiences represents a further loss of youthful innocence. Paul wants his experience with the French woman to recapture some of his youthful innocence.
It is not insignificant that he symbolically seeks refuge in the arms of the enemy. In a sense, his actions imply that the redemption he seeks cannot come from his leaders or his fellow Germans. They pressured him into the horrific trenches, so they betrayed him. They offer him prostitutes in the army brothels, further engaging in the destruction of his youthful innocence.However, Paul does not find understanding or recognition of the value of his humanity from the woman. He clashes again with the romantic idealizations of war. For her, he is a passing, perhaps titillating, sentimental fantasy for her.
He is attractive because he is young and lives in constant mortal danger on the front. She is not interested in hearing about his leave to go home. If she were never to see him again because he was returning to the front, he would be more exciting for her. She wants him to be an abstract symbol, but he wants her to see him as a human being.At home, people approach him in the streets because they want to be seen serving or talking to a soldier. For them, he is the representation of their romantic, patriotic ideals. He also runs into yet another petty authority figure.
We have seen pompous, ridiculous power hungry men in Kantorek and Himmelstoss. The Major who humiliates him in public is still obsessed with the distinctions and formalities of rank. He does not recognize the immense amount of suffering Paul has experienced. Again, the theme of betrayal is important. The authority figures that demanded he become a soldier and fight do not demonstrate any understanding or respect for him even after all the sacrifices he has made.Paul does not want to talk about the truth of trench warfare with his family or with the civilians who ask him about it. Partly, his reluctance is due to his need to maintain emotional distance from his terrible experiences.
Putting those experiences and his reactions to them into words threatens the mental reserves he will need when he returns to the front. Partly, he is reluctant because those who have never seen the ravages of trench warfare cannot possibly understand it. Truthfully describing them would also raise the risk of being branded as unpatriotic. It would make the war effort sounds like a pointless, brutal exercise in futility. He also does not want to discuss his experiences because the truth will cause pain for his family. In their own way, they are suffering as well.
He does not want to add to their pain by telling them what the war is really like.Paul's visit to Kemmerich's mother also threatens his need to emotionally distance himself from his traumatic experiences. He faces the pain of a grieving mother, and this threatens to open the gates of his own grief. He lies to her about the circumstances of her son's death because he cannot deal with his own anguish at watching a friend die a bad death. He swears on everything he holds sacred because he wants to escape, but also because he really no longer holds anything sacred.Paul's visit to his home town also reveals more clues to the fact that Germany is losing the war. The civilian population is suffering from a severe food shortage. In some ways, Paul's reluctance to be truthful about the war is also due to his reluctance to tell his fellow citizens that their own suffering is senseless.
They need justification for their sacrifices towards the war effort.All Quiet on the Western Front - Chapters 8-9SummaryPaul reports to the training camp. Next to the camp is a prison for captured Russian soldiers. They pick through the garbage for food. Paul can hardly understand how they find anything in the garbage. Food is so scarce that everything is eaten. Paul can scarcely believe that these men with "honest, peasant's faces" are the enemy. Many are slowly starving, and they are stricken with dysentery in large numbers.
Their soft voices bring images of warm, cozy homes to Paul's mind. Most people ignore their begging. A few kick them.The brotherly spirit between the prisoners touches Paul. They live in such miserable circumstances that it is no use for them to fight amongst themselves anymore. Paul cannot relate to them as individual men because he knows nothing of their lives. He only sees the animal suffering in them. People he has never met said the word that made these men the enemy.
Because of other men, they must shoot, maim, and kill one another. Paul pushes these thoughts away because they threaten his dissolution. He breaks all of his cigarettes in half and gives them to the prisoners. One of the prisoners learns that Paul plays the piano. He plays his violin next to the fence. The music sounds thin and lonely in the night air.
It only makes Paul sadder.Before he returns to the front, Paul's sister and father visit him. They cannot find anything to talk about except his mother's illness. The hours are an agony for them. His mother is in the hospital with cancer. His father did not even ask what the operation would cost because he fears the doctors will not perform the surgery if he does. Before they leave, they give Paul some jam and potato cakes that his mother made for him.
He plans to give them to the Russians because he has no appetite for them. He remembers that his mother must have been in pain when she made them, so he gives them only two cakes.When Paul returns to the front, he finds Kat, Muller, Tjaden, and Kropp still alive and uninjured. He shares his potato cakes with them. The Kaiser is scheduled or a visit, so everything is cleaned. All the soldiers are given new clothes. Paul and the others are disappointed to see that he is not a very remarkable man. After he leaves, the new clothes are taken away.
They muse that thirty people in the world could have said "No" to the war, and it would not have happened. They do not understand who is right and wrong. They are defending their fatherland and the French are doing the same. They conclude that wars are useful only for leaders who want to be in the history books.Paul volunteers to crawl into No Man's Land to gather information about the enemy's strength. On his way back, he becomes lost. A bombardment begins, and he knows an attack is coming. He has to lie still and pretend to be dead. He crawls into a shell hole to wait.
An enemy solider crashes into the shell hole with him, and Paul stabs him quickly. It is too light to make his way back. Later he notices that the French soldier is not dead. Paul bandages his wounds and gives him water. The man takes several hours to die. It is the first time Paul has killed someone in hand to hand combat, and the experience rends his soul.Paul talks to the dead soldier, explaining that he did not want to kill him.
Paul finds a picture of a woman and a little girl in the man's pocketbook. He reads what he can of the letters tucked inside. Every word is an agony to read. The dead man's name is Gerard Duval, and he was a printer by trade. Paul copies his address and resolves to send money to his family anonymously. As dark falls again, Paul's survival instinct re-awakens.
He knows he will not fulfill his promise. He crawls back to his trench. Hours later, he confesses the experience of killing the printer. Kat and Kropp draw his attention to their snipers enjoying their job of picking off enemy soldiers. They point out that he took no pleasure from his killing and he had no choice unlike the snipers. CommentaryPaul's experiences with the Russian prisoners is another attack on the romantic, patriotic ideals of the war.
He cannot see them as enemies. Other people more powerful than he and the prisoners made them enemies. Someone else decided they had to shoot, kill, and torture one another. Paul quickly flees these thoughts. The philosophical reaction only makes the senselessness of everything he has experienced all too apparent. It threatens the last threshold of hope he has. He decides to save his thoughts for a later time because he can afford to entertain them now.
Nationalistic spirit that drove several countries into unprecedented levels of carnage. The leaders of these various nations disseminated propaganda telling their citizens that there was an essential difference between them and the enemy. Paul finds such ideas ridiculous and dangerous. The prisoners actually only remind him of German peasants. They seem no different and no less human. Yet, they would be required to kill one another if the prisoners were free.Paul's subsequent discussion with his comrades continues in the same vein.
The irony of The Great War is that soldiers on both sides were sent to war based on the same ideals. After this crucial realization, they cannot determine who is right and who is wrong. In the end, those ideals are used by power- and status-hungry leaders to seduce other citizens into supporting a war that does nothing but harm them. The wars are useful only to very few men who never actually see combat. A small number of leaders made the decision to enter a war that cost millions of lives. The senselessness of the matter is that fewer than thirty men made that decision.Paul's entrance into No Man's Land as a spy is one of the most dangerous jobs in trench warfare.
It also provides the conditions for the most traumatic experience he suffers in the novel. For the first time, he kills a man in hand to hand combat. He sees the enemy face to face, so he is forced to realize the true cost behind his taking of another human being's life. Gerard Duval is not a vague figure he kills from a distance. Paul is disgusted to find blood on his hand after he stabs Gerard. Paul bandages Gerard once he realizes that he is not dead. Paul is shocked to see the terror in the Gerard's eyes.
Paul is forced to realize that he is the object of such fear. He hesitates to read Gerard's name in his paybook because his victim will take on en even more concrete identity. He is forced to see what he has destroyed. He is forced to realize that Gerard's wife and child are victims of his actions as well.By the time Paul returns to the trenches, he ceases to refer to Gerard as an individual. He calls him "the printer." It is difficult to judge him morally because he cannot survive the war if he does not emotionally distance himself from the experience. He cannot function as a soldier if he remains in the grips of grief and remorse he experienced in the hours after the Gerard's death.Remarque's sympathetic portrayal of the enemy is an attack on the nationalistic values that provoked The Great War. When the enemy becomes human, the romantic patriotism that fueled the war effort becomes a heinous crime.
Men were pitted against one another under the very same banners: home, country, and family. The enemies are also fathers, husbands, and sons, not monsters.All Quiet on the Western Front - Chapter 10SummaryPaul, Tjaden, Muller, Kropp, Detering, and Kat have to guard an empty village because a supply dump is there. They are also supposed to supply themselves from the dump. They choose a dug-out and proceed to take advantage of the opportunity to eat and sleep as much as they can. They take a large mahogany bed, mattresses, and blankets into their dug-out because such comforts are a luxury they do not enjoy normally. They collect eggs, butter, and they have the amazing luck to find two suckling pigs. They proceed to collect fresh vegetables and cook a grand dinner in a well-outfitted kitchen hear the dug-out.
Paul makes pancakes while the others roast the pigs.Unfortunately, the enemy notes the smoke rising from the chimney and proceeds to bomb the house. The men gather the food and make a dash for the dugout. Paul finishes the pancakes while the bombs fall around him. Once he finishes, he grabs the plate of pancakes and manages to get to the dug-out without losing a single one. The meal lasts four hours. Afterwards, they smoke cigars and cigarettes from the supply dump.
They drink coffee, and begin eating again before they end the night with cognac. They even feed a stray cat. The richness of the meal after such long deprivation causes them to suffer bouts of diarrhea all night.For two weeks, the men live a "charmed life" before they are moved again. They take the bed, two arm chairs, and the cat with them. While they are evacuating another village, Kropp and Paul are wounded by a falling shell. They find an ambulance wagon after struggling out of the zone of the shelling. Albert has been wounded very close to his knee.
He resolves to commit suicide if they amputate his leg. Paul's leg is broken and his arm is wounded. He and Albert arrange to travel to the hospital in the same train car together by bribing a sergeant-major with cigars.Albert develops a fever and must stop at the Catholic hospital nearby. Paul fakes an illness to go with him. The first day, Paul has to fight to get the nuns to close the door while they pray. The patients cannot sleep for the noise. Albert's fever does not improve, so they amputate his leg from the thigh. Men die daily at the hospital.
The amazing array of maiming wounds shows Paul that a hospital is the best place to learn what war is about. He wonders what will happen to his generation after the war ends. How can they live a normal life when their first calling was killing?Lewandowski, a forty year-old soldier, is recuperating from a bad abdominal injury. He is excited that his wife is coming to visit him with the child she bore after he left to fight two years before. He wanted to go out with his wife because he has not slept with her for two years. Before she arrives, he develops a fever, so he is confined to bed.
When she arrives, she is nervous. Lewandowski explains what he wants, and she blushes furiously. The other patients tell her that social niceties are no good during this day and age. Two men guard the door in case a doctor or one of the nuns arrives to check on a patient. Albert holds the child, and the other patients play cards and chat loudly with their backs to the couple. The plan is carried out without a problem.
Lewandowski's wife shares the food she brought with the patients.Paul heals well. The hospital begins using paper bandages because the cloth ones have become scarce. Kropp's leg heals, but he is more solemn and less talkative than he used to be. Paul thinks he would have killed himself if he were not in a room with other patients. Paul receives leave to go home and finish healing. Parting from his mother is harder than the last time.
She is weaker than before. CommentaryThe scenes in the evacuated village are full of a certain bitter comedy. Paul and his friends make use of the opportunity to celebrate and live a charmed life because the chances to relax and become human are so few and far between. While Paul's decision to stay and finish his pancakes while bombs are falling around the kitchen seems like a gross misalignment of priorities, there is a strange, crazy logic to it. Pancakes are his favorite dish. He could easily die tomorrow and never have them again. However, there is a dark side to this scene. The men grab their food first and then they seek shelter. Paul finishes the last four pancakes before he runs for shelter.
He and his friends are so used to being bombed and shot at, that they can actually maintain the nerve to preserve their meal. Moreover, they are so starved and hungry for real food that they are actually willing to risk their lives for it. At the same time, their antics while guarding the supply dump provide an instance of hope. Small elements of humanity and human folly can actually survive the trenches.The ride in the train with Albert is also full of comedic humor. Despite the dirtiness and coarseness of life in the trenches, Paul still suffers from a boyish modesty in his reluctance to tell one of the nurses he needs to go to the bathroom. He does not want to lie in the bunks because the sheets are so clean and he is so dirty. The Catholic hospital also contains moments when Paul's boyish innocence shows signs of surviving. He throws a bottle at the door in order to force the nuns' to shut it when they pray.
Another man takes the blame because he has a medical excuse for irrational, impetuous outbursts. Paul and the other patients react with glee when they discover this because they know they can commit all sorts of mischief and infractions of the rules. The patient with the license to misbehave without consequences can always take credit for it.Lewandowski's feverish anticipation of his wife's visit demonstrates that the normal course of human concerns can indeed survive the trenches. Moreover, the scene in which he carried out his plan also shows the extraordinary level of familiarity and intimacy that soldiers share with one another. No one takes offense at his desire to enjoy conjugal relations with his wife while they are in the room. In fact, they all take part in the plan by preventing doctors and nuns from interrupting its progress.However, there is a dark side to the comedic humor in the scenes at the hospital as well.
Men die every day from their wounds. Lewandowski may never see his wife again because he might not survive his wounds. Moreover, overzealous doctors use wounded soldiers as guinea pigs for their crackpot ideas. One doctor cripples a number of otherwise able-bodied young soldiers by trying to cure their flat feet. Kropp suffers an intense depression over the loss of his leg. The use of paper bandages in the hospital reveals that Germany is suffering even greater shortages in necessary resources for the war effort. It also another clue to the fact that Germany is losing the war, but still continuing to prosecute it.Moreover, the hospital is filled with men suffering from permanently disfiguring injuries. There are wards for soldiers suffering from poison gas injuries, amputations, blindness, and various other injuries. The hospital in a museum of the vast array of maiming or lethal injuries to which the human body is subject in modern warfare.
It is the place where the most succinct and shocking evidence of the human costs of war can be seen. Bibliography:.
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