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... help reestablish the South Korean territory. The effort was successful and MacArthur, despite Chinese warnings, crossed north over the 38 th parallel on a course into China. The United Nation's forces were meet by the Chinese and forced back south of the border in 1951.
The war continued on for two more years and President Truman confessed that nuclear weapons were even consider on two occasions. The innovations of the Korean War were the helicopter for medical evacuations, naval power for evacuations, and improvements on the amphibious landing. The Vietnam War was the result of the 1954 American political action against the takeover of Vietnam by the communist Ho Chi Minh. The United States sought to delay the political election process, because it had become obvious that Ho Chi Minh would be elected and the rest of southeast Asia would "fall like dominoes", as coined by President Eisenhower, to the communist influence.
Ho Chi Minh resumed the civil war in Vietnam by the use of guerrilla and mobile warfare in the south. As conditions worsened in Laos, it seemed that the United States under newly elected President Kennedy was in the midst of two and a half conflicts: Strategic with Russia, Conventional with Vietnam, and Minor Conflict through Laos. By 1965, after the assassination of President Kennedy and the appointment of President Johnson, ground troops were committed to Vietnam. The Viet Cong strategy was sturdy due to the persistence of Ho Chi Minh for independence. The North Vietnamese tactics consisted of using Cambodia and Laos as supply lines that lead down the Ho Chi Minh trail into South Vietnam, and they maintained ties with Russia and China in order to keep supplies and munitions coming into the country.
The Viet Cong also used the political divisions within the United States on Vietnamese policies to implement and maintain constraints on the American use of force. United States involvement in Vietnam consisted of troops, strategic bombing, civic action, population relocation, search and destroys, and positional showdowns. President Nixon decreased troop involvement and continued to supply the South Vietnamese while secretly driving the Viet Cong out of Cambodia. He then worked with Russia and China to isolate North Vietnam and then continued to bomb them. The new weapons that came out of the Vietnam War were the helicopter gunship, laser-guided missiles, infrared scopes, and the much-used B- 52. After the war ended the North Vietnamese did, as predicted by President Eisenhower, invade Cambodia in 1977 and Laos in 1975 in an effort to further implement communist ideology.
The nation of Israel has been a source of tension since it was established in 1948 by a British mandate. The surrounding nations of Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Egypt and Iraq were not ready to welcome the new state into their midst and a territorial dispute commenced. The Israelis further pressed the issue by attacking through the Sinai Desert to take control of the Suez Canal in 1956 as a front for the English and French establishment on the canal until international pressures forced their withdrawal, but Israel maintained control over the Gaza Strip. This action paved the road for future aggression initiated from Egypt, Syria, Jordan, and Iraq in 1967 during a six-day conflict, but superior Israeli airmen as well as French and American planes were sufficient enough to overcome the attacks. The Arab-Israeli conflicts are still a global hotspot today. The important fact to note about the conventional wars during the Cold War era is that the cost of lives far outweighed any other era, due to the increase in weaponry technology and the selling of these weapons to the majority of third world nations.
Other countries involved in conventional wars during the Cold War era include India, Pakistan, Cambodia, Afghanistan, Argentina, and Iran. Another design of military fighting that made great strides of development during the Cold War was low-intensity conflicts, which consist of guerrilla and terrorist techniques modeled after Mao Tse-tung's takeover of China after World War II. Although a single definition of low-intensity conflict has not been established, it has become one of the most utilized techniques of today to achieve political or ideological objectives. The advantages to using this type of warfare are fewer personnel, lower costs, and the influence compared to the investment is greater. The effects of this type of engagement are that the loss of civilian lives is devastating, psychological result is immense, and some civilians may grow sympathetic for the cause. The terrorists are usually members of a small group or even a group of small groups known as cells, which work without the knowledge of other cells existence.
Most of the time these villains are working covertly, agency identity is concealed; or clandestine, origin of the mastermind is hidden. It is hard to define a terrorist because what one country considers a terrorist may be another country's freedom fighter. Guerrilla warfare consists of trained men that infiltrate the enemy's lines and then work from within to destroy as much as possible. The other type of maneuver is the mobile warfare, which is basically a hit and run. The effects of these types of warfare are demoralization of the enemy, attrition of enemy forces, and public reaction against the enemy. Peacekeeping commissions have been set up by the United Nations in order to help countries that are unable to deal with an internal or external conflict.
In 1948 the Security Council established the United Nations Supervision Organization (UNTSO) to assist in matters as a mediator and peace talks in Palestine. Other nations that have set up similar commissions are Pakistan, India, Lebanon, Yemen, and the Dominican Republic. Another form of peacekeeping measures established by the United Nations in 1957, in order to maintain a peacekeeping force in the Middle East, is the United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF). The blue helmeted force was put together as a show of more than just observers. Forces were only dispatched if the host country approved them, and although they were authorized to carry arms there were strict rules that had to be followed. The UNEF could only use the weapons for self-defense, force could not be used to carry out their mission of observation, and they were not allowed to interfere with the countries administration.
The UNEF would be expected to govern all of the United Nations actions after it's establishment and for the most part has done so. Although the United Nation's peacekeeping methods have not ended all threats to every country on the global front, the methods are a step in the right direction to a solution that provides every land with a peaceful resolution. WORKS CITED Brodie, Bernard and Fawn. From Crossbow to H-Bomb. (Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University, 1973). Chap 9 - 11 Keegan, John. Mask of Command. (New York, New York: Viking Penguin, 1988).
Conclusion Preston, Richard A. , Alex Roland, and Sydney F. Wise. Men In Arms: A History of Warfare and its interrelationships With Western Society. (Belmont, California: Wadsworth/ Thomson Learning, 2001). Chap 19 - 22
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