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Though they were close geographically, the differences in their customs put Mesopotamia and Egypt worlds apart. These two Empires were in some ways radically different, yet in others, amazingly similar. Both built temples, farmed, had social classes, had government, and praised many gods. Under their great rulers, these two empires expanded and developed many things that still effect us in our lives today. Egypt was located in the Nile River Valley. They used the fertile land and yearly flood to their advantage. The floods leave huge amount of silt from the highlands with which to farm.
They farmed Cereal crops such as wheat and barley. The Nile also supplied geese and fish, and wild papyrus which Egyptians wove into rope, mats, baskets, and paper. Mesopotamia was located to the Northeast of Egypt in the fertile crescent. Farmers used the Tigris and Euphrates rivers to water their crops. No rain fell in the summer and unpredictable floods washed away crops and sometimes villages. They Egypt's government was led by a king, or pharaoh.
Some of the most noteworthy were Narmer, Ahmose, Hatshepsut, Thutmose III, Akhenaton, Ramses II, and Ramses III. The Government was a theocracy. That means the king is the political and religious leader. The Pharaoh also appointed a bureaucracy. Mesopotamian government was individualized in each city state. Each typically chose a military leader as a king . The king was a military leader and the high priest, making Mesopotamian government a theocracy. A king would closely supervise farming because they believed the land Egyptians were polytheistic.
This means the worship of many deities. Some of the more powerful deities were Osiris, god of life, death, and the rebirth of all living things; Horus, the sky god; and Isis, wife of Osiris. Their religion stressed an afterlife, Egyptians spent much time and wealth to preparing for a happy afterlife. Every body could hope for eternal life for Osiris's help. Mesopotamians were also polytheistic. Their gods presided over a specific natural force, such as wind or rain.
Each city had its own god or goddess that it worshipped. Priests and Priestesses often performed rituals and ceremonies to appease their temperamental gods. Mesopotamians did not expect a happy life after death. They would preside in a grim, dark, airless underworld where the dead were only Whether you're comparing religion, geography, or government of these two ancient Empires, you will always find the same thing. There are numerous similarities, but you will always find two or three blaring differences. I would say that the Mesopotamian empire was more successful because of the time it lasted and the huge area it covered.
They invented the wagon wheel, the potter's wheel, and a 12 month calendar. What they accomplished has effected us greatly in ways we will probably never realize. Bibliography:.
Research essay sample on Gyptian And Mesopotamia Art