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... s, we usually first remember by sight, then by sound, and last by the pronunciation of the word. There are many cell assembler in our body. Cell assemblers are basically many cells that are put together to preform a unified task, such as remembering. When cell assembly is developed, you can perceive an event, and you can also be able to perceive that really aren't there; such as when someone hallucinates something. When a child is growing up and maturing, the first three years or so are extremely important. The important thing to realize that speaking isn't the most important thing, the more important thing is to hear words that are spoken to you.

Dr. Jean-Pierre Changeux participated in an experiment that tried to determine how a cell will grow when it is removed from an egg. They put the cells in a slide with no sort of other interference what so ever. Some of them grew and became healthy, and the minority of them died. He then added some muscle cells, and since they are long muscle cells, the cells from the embryo started to become elongated as well. He discovered that movement causes links between nerve cells.

Another question that arises during the study of our memory is this: "Do we ever forget old memories or do we just store them somewhere else so that we can make room for new memories?" Well, first off, we never lose memories. We just sort of move them over to the side so that room can be made for the new memories, but not all old memories are moved over. There are some memories that stay with us throughout our life, such as smell, skin sensations, and our fears are preserved. We remember very little for our childhood, but what we learn from that period of time is very important to us. We also try to repress some memories, the ones that we don't like, such as painful experiences. One theory is that when we are young, our brain still isn't completely developed and therefor we can't remember everything that is happening. Our brain develops memory with great precision.

First we develop the memory for smell and smell, and the last to get developed would be the complex memory areas, the ones that have to remember complicated tasks. Memories that involve emotions are usually the best kept. Memories are first transferred from the hippocampus to the amegdella. If your hippocampus was to get damaged in any way, then you will have amnesia. Amnesia is a type of brain disorder that causes us the disability of remembering new memories. People that have amnesia are still able to remember past things that have happened to them, but things that happen to them at a daily basis, those are not remembered at all. But they can still remember some things, because the brain brakes down our memories to different regions of our brain.

Peter is one victim of amnesia. He was playing a basketball game that night, and a few hours later he states that he was unable to speak, he felt weak; but the unusual thing is that he remembers exactly what happened to him during the time of his attack. Peter was a very smart man, he was top part of his class and everyone looked up to him. After the attack, his old memories are still intact, but he is unable to memorize things in the present. He is also quite shy now, but before the attack he was very outgoing. The hippocampus is equally important in the learning procedure.

When a person learns something new, in their brains, they are destroying non-important synapses. But through the same process, there are new, useful synapses created. Sometimes, the deletion of the unimportant synapses will allow us to learn faster. So, as we can presume, learning anything will involve the stimulating of synapses. One common belief is that as a person ages, they lose brain cells. That is true, and yet we get smarter and wiser as we get older. How is all this true? Well, as we age, we teach ourselves how to use the knowledge that we gain in better and more efficient ways.

Dr. Gary Lynch believes all learning should leave a biological trail in our brain. He states that every little synapse that acts up makes a lasting physical impression on our brains. On experiment he ran was that he took sections of rat brain. Then he studied them under a microscope before and after supplying an electrical discharge. The discharge was just like the type of reaction that occurs when a message is sent across a synapse.

Therefor, the changes would be seen alongside the synaptic quarantine. During the first ten months there was no concluded evidence that any sort of change had occurred; but during the eleventh month there was a change. There were visual changes alongside the synapse of each sample taken. So because of this experiment, we can conclude that learning does cause a physical change our brain. There is one downside to this area of study, now we have to deal with the consequences of the misuse of the ability of control of synaptic growth. Dr. Anders Bjorkland took older rats that have difficulty remembering, which is caused by the loss of hippocampo cells, and he injected them with new, healthy hippocampo cells.

Before the injection, he took the rats and placed them in milky colored water. There was only one very small stand in the water that allowed the rats to not be in the water, and the rats were exposed to that stand. The older rats couldn't remember where the stand was, and were therefor forced to swim around the tub aimlessly. After the injection, however, the rats remembered exactly where the stand was and they returned to it without any visible difficulties. Amnesia in humans is very selective, it attacks only a very small part of the memory system. We are trying to find some way to remember what to do, but we can't.

Probably the only way to know how to do something for these victims is through repetition. Take the case of Karl Lashley. When he was given a test in which he would have to solve the Tower of Hanoi, he wasn't able to do it the first time, even the second time. Only after a few times that he did it was he able to go through the puzzle with little difficulty. If we asked him how he did it, he would answer you quite simply that he doesn't know, it sort of comes to him second nature. One way to remember things after you are a victim of amnesia is by trying to substitute different words or numbers by giving them corresponding pictures. Radical or bizarre memories actually quite often tend to work.

Trevor Emmott was able to remember 36 random numbers using this type of system. A person would be able to give him a six digit number, and he could put two pictures to that number so that he could later on restate that number in order. Dr. Barbra Wilson was working with a few patients that suffered from amnesia. One of them, Ken, was given several easy steps in a room. Ten minutes later, he was asked to retrace those steps, and all he could remember was one of the several.

He later states that he tries not to look stupid or dumb, even though he knows that people do think that of him. He said that he is trying to think. He recalls past memories very well, D-Day and his own marriage; but his wife death, which happened a year ago, he cannot recollect. He thinks that seconds have pasted when in reality minutes have, or months passed when years have. He is unable to carry out a normal conversation for the simple fact that he forgets what the conversation was about, he constantly asks the same questions over and over, and he forgets things that are said to him the day before. For him, life is very frustrating, and the sad thing is that no drugs or any type of therapy will help him.

So as you get older, you really don't forget what happened to you as you were younger, you just move them to part of your brain so that they won't interfere with the new memories. One reason for this is because it is impossible for our brain to hold every type of memory so that it is on a constant retrieval basis. One man, however, did have this capability. He was a Russian that had a photographic memory. He remembered every single little detail of what ever happens to him. So because of that, his life is also extremely difficult. He is unable to talk to people because any word you would say to him, it would bring a flood of memories to him, and he would be overwhelmed. The human body is related to many different types of animals.

We share the same nerve structure with that of squids, our brains are like that of alligators, and our emotions are like that of a cat. We are the closest in similarities to a chimpanzee, in which 98% of our DNA is the same. Even though through all these similarities we are the only species that can communicate through a language or we can plan things out correctly. The divided brain took about a hundred years to be evolved into what we use today. The brain is divided accordingly to right and left hemispheres, or "the two brains". Each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body, or they are asymmetrical; so that the left hemisphere controls the right side of body and the right hemisphere the left side of body respectively.

We also are able to shape our environment to our liking. We can alter things that nature intended on happening. Anna Cole is a sculpture. Because of her line of work, she extensively uses the cortex of her brain, or the message sender. The cortex is the wrinkled, outer layer of the brain, it contains a network of brain cells that are used in transferring messages. Our brains were designed for discovery.

We love to search, to find out, to do things that we are forbidden to do. Language functions are housed in both of the hemispheres equally. We also, under normal circumstances, have a emotional relationship with both sides. The corpus callosum carries impulses to and from each of the two hemispheres. If a person was to damage that link, we would completely alter the mutual relationship that the two hemispheres share. Sometimes it is recommended to surgically remove the corpus callosum, that usually occurs to people who suffer frequent seizures.

Vieki is a patient who had her corpus callosum damaged by surgeons. Now she is unable to communicate with both of her hemispheres correctly. She has difficulty thinking something and then completing that task. She is subjected to a test; different bits of information was sent to each hemisphere. When she views something on the left side of a screen, the information is then passed to her right hemisphere. That hemisphere can't express what she sees, but she can express what she sees on the left side by the use of her left hand, in other words she is able to draw what she sees.

If she viewed a complicated object, such as a woman on a telephone, all she could do is generalize what she sees; in other words she saw a woman. So through all of this, it was concluded that she had damaged her left visual field, and her right hemisphere. Her left hemisphere, as well as ours, does most of the verbal awareness that we have. All human brains have the biological making for language. When we experience changes, we then learn something new. The area of the brain concerning the left hemisphere is more dense altogether, it is better constructed then the right side.

Ta was a patient of Dr. Paul Broca. Ta's name was given to him simply all he could say was "ta", in other words, Ta couldn't speak. The area of the brain that Dr. Broca said that Ta's deformity came from was around the frontal part of the left hemisphere. That area, now called Broca's Area, is said to control the muscles of speech. Charles Landy had a good legal practice going. Until one day he had a blood clot, which then caused a stroke. His ability to understand language as well as the ability to express himself basically vanished as the stoke passes.

Most of his problems are mechanical, he is slow, hard to get going: all as stated by his doctor, Dr. Norman Geschwind. When given something to read, Charles stuttered, he slurred his speech, but in the end he would finish reading it. When Charles was given the statement: "The leopard was killed by the lion". After that he was given the simple question, "Which animal died?" Charles was unable to give the answer. Basically what happened was this: all his brain heard were the nouns and verbs of the sentence, or " Leopard killed lion".

He has no comparison between what is heard and what is meant. In 1874, Carl Vernica also contributed to the study of the brain by discovering his own area, or Vernica's area. Vernica's area is said to control what we hear. The victim might pronounce all his/her words correctly and clearly, but all of there words make no sense. So the way that the brain processes new idea is this: first, sound travels to Verica's area. Then, we say what we heard, or Broca's area is activated.

Last on the list is the motor cortex. The right hemisphere of the brain specializes in shapes and sizes. The left hemisphere mostly thinks pictures, not words. Because of this, the right hemisphere recognizes faces of people and different places. One patient that had suffered from a stroke states that she feels like she is living in a weird and unknown place. She can't remember where she's been, or she can't remember the people she has talked to. She gets angry at herself, she hits herself in the head to try to fix everything.

She isn't impaired because of all of this. She is still quite able to give excellent descriptions of the peoples faces she views, but she is unable to give a name to the face. She is most possibly suffering from Prosopagnosia, or the ability to recognize faces of people. The damage of a persons brain that has this damage was viewed through a PET Scan, and the areas of damage were clearly visible. In the past, we believed that face recognition was housed in the right hemisphere. Now, however, we know that each hemisphere contributes something different to the recognition.

What controls brain organizations? New clues on how the brain develops are being discovered. One idea is that our culture and our surroundings contribute to our brain development. The island of Japan has been isolated by centuries, and their culture has flourished without any interference for decades. Usually children in Japan learn two scripts. The first, called Canna, uses symbols as words, and therefor is concentrated on the left hemisphere. The other, called Conji, concentrates on the use of our visual field, and therefor works on the right hemisphere.

One symbol may have up to several meanings. Also, in Japan, when a child is crying, it is considered a sound of nature. The Japanese are very delicate to sounds of nature, and therefor they treat as sound like crying as a language. All of that mostly concentrates on the left hemisphere. On the Western hemisphere, we treat crying as a noise, and therefor we put it on the right hemisphere of the brain. In Australia, Aboriginal children preform worse then while Australian children preform when they use verbal memories.

Dr. Kearing was working with them, trying to understand why this is so. There is about a three year difference between the Aboriginal children and the white children. When the Aboriginal children preformed a test, they were faced with the dilemma to remember where a few objects were supposed to go on a sheet of paper. The man made objects in theory should be easier to put back in place, and the stones used should be a difficulty. But for the Aboriginal children, the truth was just the opposite.

They remembered almost without any difficulties where the rocks went, and the man made objects gave them a harder time. Culture isn't the only difference in our brain development; the basis if we are male of female must also be taken into account. There are many different effects to take into effect as we study the differences between the sexes, such as: smell, taste, touch, and coordination. Hand preference, for instance, is developed hormonal in our brain. Males are take up 10% of the left handed population why females make up only 4%. Now being a left handed means two things: one, you are most usually better at the arts, but then again you have a greater chance to have learning disabilities.

Why the baby child is still a fetus, the baby that received more testosterone will most likely become a male. There was a woman that had tow active testicles in her body. When she was younger, she received hormonal therapy to induce menstruation. Genetically, she started out as a male. She developed testicles, got testosterone pumped into her, but through a weird disorder, she began to develop the physical features of a female. When she was injected with estrogen, the female body hormone, her brain did not respond to it at all.

Dr. Guather Dorner studies stress and the changes it has on the womb inside of a pregnant lab rat. For two hours each day, the rats were confined and exposed to very powerful lights. They produced adrenaline, which in turn decreased the level of testosterone, thus giving the chance that the offspring was going to be female a better chance. Also, there was a study done in Germany that took 500 homosexuals and found out that any child that was born during the war had a two times greater chance of becoming a homosexual because of the stress put on the women at that time. When the homosexuals were then injected with estrogen, there brains were triggered by this. Dr.

Marion Diamond took samples of rat brains, then froze them, then studied them. She concluded that females have thicker left hemispheres, and males have thicker right hemispheres. She also took the newborn rats from their mothers and injected them with visuospatial. Also, she took the testicles from the newborns and she found that those rats produced less testosterone. She also stated that rats that were in a healthy, well taken care of environment had larger cortexes then rats that were in a barren environment. The way that we treat our children also has a considerable effect on the way that they will grow up.

It was concluded that we encourage boys to be more active, to explore their surroundings more. When it comes to girls, however, we are more talkative to, we encourage inactivity, we tell them they are pretty. So is the way we grow up and end up from experience, or is it from our brains development. The answer, probably both. Our brain has the qualities and capabilities that no other animal has. Because of that, we also suffer from diseases that no other animals have. About 1% of the whole human population suffers from Schizophrenia, or about 40 million people.

Out of all the diseases that we have discovered in our human race, schizophrenia is almost certainly the darkest one of them all. About 30% of the patients that suffer from it have little or no response to any conventual therapy. Schizophrenia encompasses madness. It is a battle between thought and emotions; it is a global attack on basically everything that we consider human. Gerry is a schizophrenic patient that is basically a textbook case of what the disease is. He shows every noted feature of a schizophrenic, he is thought-disordered, delusional, paranoid, and he has disturbances in his mood.

He had a normal childhood, he later on graduated as a police officer. His mother now recalls that if they would have caught on then that he had schizophrenia, it would of been much better. He has a constant fear of the fact that someone wants to kill him. Gerry feels that most certainly an assassin type person is going to kill him. He stresses that the way he will die is that he will be electrocuted; the cause of his death would be because of the sins that he has committed in the past. These are not new feeling to him at all, he constantly feels this.

He has a great fear of most people. He feels that he was raped a few times when he went to kindergarten, and also when he was trying to raise his hand in class, a black child would stab him in the back of the head with a pencil. All of these statements are false, but because of the fact that he is delusional, he feels that all of these ideas are true and they did happen. When he was asked what he would like to be helped with, he stated that he would "like to quit smoking, cleaned up, go home and back to the bakery, and go to school to become a doctor. He was faced with the decision to stay at the institution that he was in or to get out of there and to be forced by the state to go into a publicly funded type of institution. He kept on repeating that he will stay only if his mother will also stay with him, but she is only able to go to him once a month.

The reason why the doctors and his parents don't want to release him is because they are afraid he will hurt himself. He has voices in his head, usually male voices. The voices constantly accuse him of the past crimes that he has committed. At times, they tell him to do things, such as to stand up and leave the room. They also say things to him that frighten him or disturb him. His mother states "there (schizophrenics) mind is like that of a motor, it's constantly racing. His mind is always doing some sort of thought, when he sleeps he even has nightmares because of it. Abnormalities of thinking, feeling, and perception; these are all affected.

The global impairment of our brains, of all of our complex functions has occurred. Very often, a person might go into psychosis, or the withdrawal from everyone and everything that is familiar and known. It can lasts for years, and there is no cure or no real way to help the victims. In order to understand the patients disease, we can break it down into thirds. The first third, the victim might have a schizophrenic attack once or twice, and they carry on life as if nothing ever happened. The middle third receives the attacks on an off and on basis, and they do benefit from therapy.

The last and most serious third are called chronic schizophrenics. They never recover from the disease and no amount of therapy will ever help them. Since their disease will last years and years, brain damage occurs because of the chemicals that cause the disease. The disorder attacks the highest functions of our brain, those are the exact same functions that separate us from animals. To bear a child that is so different from the others, that is considered such an outcast, that alone is a tremendous difficulty that the parents must live with. Schizophrenia has been considered a disease that is caused by the way that the child is nurtured. For many years, this has been the common belief and thus was accepted. Recently, however, scientists have begun to start to study and to question that old hypophysis. Not to long ago the disease was thought of being psychoanalysis, or caused by trauma inflicted by the family, by the early childhood experiences of the patient. Although that was also believed for quiet some time, it was proven to be incorrect.

Schizophrenia is not caused during or because of ones childhood. In the last twenty-five or thirty so years, we have determined that our genetics have a very strong factor in the development of schizophrenia. Although it is true that if someone in your family has the disease, you will also develop it. Although there are also many cases in which relatives of one individual have the disease, and yet that individual never inherits it or maybe they just don't develop it. Mrs. Owens had a son that has recently developed schizophrenia. A major part of her family has the disease, and yet she never expected to be personally attacked by it. She says you try to find a person that looks, acts, speaks, and even walks like your son, and then you try to substitute this new son with your old one. One of the first signs of the disease that her son showed was that he drew a type of universe on the back of a mirror. It was quite neatly and nicely drawn, there were many words that accompanied the drawing that had little if any meaning in the human language at all.

One day, hen the son was alone in the house, his voices in his head told him to amputate one of his own toes. His mother believes that he was in a different place, space, or even universe when he committed this. Stress from the outside environment has a major effect on how the victim will act. If the area in which you live in is stressful, noisy, and such; then the patient will have a much harder time to recover if he or she ever recovers. But if they live in a suburban area, where it is relatively quiet and it has a nice natural setting, then it will be much easier for the victim to recover. Schizophrenia is mostly considered a disorder that is a grouping of different disorders. We must approach it with different tools.

The hippocampal cells relate to the ways that we feel, the way we feel with the area around us. Also, the arrangement of the nerve cells has a lot to deal with the disorder. In a normal human beings brain, the nerve cells are arranged in rows, everything seems that it is in order. However, when you take a same of a schizophrenics brain, the nerve cells are completely spread out. They seem to be in total chaos, no order is present what so ever. When Gerry goes on a visit home, he constantly asks the driver and tells the driver that the police are going to kill him.

He constantly blows things out of proportion, he states that he can lift two thousand pounds, when in reality he would never be able to lift that physically. When he gets home, he constantly argues and yells at his father. He states that his father wants to kill him, and he even asks the father why is he going to kill him. He later also admits that he is afraid of his father, he says that he is a good father, and even though of his age, he is till able to kick his ass. He also states that a certain doctor told him that he is so sane that he is insane. He constantly is repeating that he has no fun at all, never any fun, and so on. All his father has to say to this is that it is hard to raise this type of child, especially since it is there only child. Ever since he was a young boy, he was given everything that was possible for him.

The parents were constantly trying to make life easier for him that they had it themselves. Heather is also a schizophrenic. She states that she has kryptonite inside of her body, and she has to drink lots of coffee and pop in order to keep it down. She also says that she has a monopoly in the coffee industry. She asks the reporter frequently if he eats raw eggs. She believes that boys are the ones that get pregnant and not girls.

She has been put in and out of private hospitals to house her, but now that all the money that was ever saved up has been spent, her parents are faced with the task to take her into a public facility. The difference between the two is tremendous. The public institutions are just like jails, you don't receive the nurturing that you so badly need. She is being almost forced by her parents to go back to the institutions so that she can be allowed to visit her parents again, but she hates and despises that place. For a doctor, it is very hard to describe the sadness, the anger, and the pain that you would feel if you had to be faced with the task of heading a ward in a hospital that houses schizophrenics, for the simple reason that there is no cures and there aren't really any ways to treat the patients. One method that is used to ease down a tense and nervous patient is that they are forced into a bath tub full of cool water, then a canvas is put over it so that they will actually stay there.

Drugs were brought from France for the victims. Now we are able to see the patients as people with diseases, not as freaks. It is almost like a person that is going to have an operation. Even eight days before the operation the patient is feeling stressful, anxiety, and nervous. But with a certain kind of drug, the patients become mentally relaxed, and thus there must be some sort of physiological link. Any type of drug that had the possibility of being useful was tested. A number of compounds were given, and their restlessness left them, they began to sleep. This is a great advancement because some of these people haven't slept for two, three, four, even five months on end.

Augustine is another schizophrenic. Today he is feeling ok. He has many thoughts going through is head, but none of them make any sense. He states that he would like to be either: war leader, doctor, or priest. Physically, he looks like a mess; his hair is long and uncombed and he has a beard. He was about to change medications, and he was looking forward to that.

After the medication change, he looks completely different. He got a hair cut, and his beard is gone. His goals are also more solid, he plans to get a job now, and his thoughts have cleared up. All the drugs that are being used block never cells from exchanging information. All of the drugs ease the chemical in the brain know as dopamine. Circumstances in our environment can change a person.

Emotions can change the biochemistry of our brains, and this can answer at least a few questions that will be brought up in the future. Ever though the drugs have great benefits, they aren't perfect. The drugs contain terrible side effects, such as gross movement disorders, impotence, and even apathy. Also, drugs don't cure schizophrenia, they merely control its symptoms. For now, we can use what we have, but we are in a constant mission in order to find the cure for all of this madness that a few of us face on a daily basis. The study of brain science is explored by the study of many different small bits and pieces of information that we are able to put together from what we have learned so far.

Since brain science is a very hard to study area of our human bodies, we still are very uncertain about most parts of that system. When we study our vision, we aren't talking about what we see, but what we perceive. For now, tools that we have developed such as brain tissue transplants or new drugs have just been tools on the mission to try to find an explanation to all of this. The attribute that we consider when we talk about brain science is awareness. Brain science is basically to ability to know who you are at any given time and where you are. When we go to sleep, that is the one time that any animal is most vulnerable.

Why then would we risk so much just to sleep? Well, the benefits out weight the negative effects so much that we can consciously choose to go to sleep without any problems. When we sleep, our brain is still functioning, but the impulses that are usually sent to our muscles are blocked out and aren't sent anymore. When we sleep, we of course dream. We dream not only for mental reasons but also for physical reasons. Sleeping and dreaming were put together during one experiment in 1962. It was found out that every 90 minutes we go into a type of sleep called REM sleep, standing for Rapid Eye Movement.

During these intervals, we are dreaming. Our eyes move constantly, our brain is basically processing information but without the help of the visual cortex. It was also discovered that the fetus in a womb of a pregnant woman also experiences of REM sleep; but it is a different type of REM because we dream from experiences, and that is impossible for the fetus. Dr. Hobson states that is still in debate wether dreams benefit us in our life or not. Sleep and dreams both occur because of chemical reactions in our brains, it mostly occurs in a specific part of the brain. Dr.

Hobson also concluded that the pons turn on the brain, signals are then sent to the frontal cortex. The frontal cortex then decides what to perceive from what we see in the physical world. When we dream, it is a sensory experience. We are experiencing the creative thinking of our brain, because our frontal cortex has to "imagine" what we would normally see just from thoughts that our brains have thought up. What happens when the changes in our personality become uncontrollable? Tony is a multiple personality (MP) patient that suffers from the disorder. He has at least 53 different personalities; of those there are: Tony the original; Richard, Tony's dead cousin; the imposter; and 3 Didi's, age 7, 14, 37. Instead of having a free flowing type of personality, Tony have all these different types of "people" that he believ.

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