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I. The establishment of Public Schools and motive A. Historical issues and interpretations of those issues allows one to examine motive. 1. "The reader will be provided with a variety of historical interpretations and historical issues. " 2. "Thinking about history involves both an intellectual consideration of conflicting interpretations, emotions, and images of public schools. " 3. "Readers should be able to clarify their opinion about educational institutions and to social events. " B. Motives issues serves as a guide to ask questions such as why were public schools established?
Possible answers include: 1. To ensure that all citizens protect their political and economic rights. 2. To protect the power of an elite by controlling economic and political ideas. 3. To ensure the dominance of one culture over another. C. Motives for past decisions have implications for future decisions 1. "One's knowledge, images, and emotions regarding the past have an impact on future actions. " II.
What the author considers "important historical themes" A. Major part U. S. school history involves conflicts over cultural domination. 1. English "invaded" North America and started schools to ensure domination of Protestant Anglo-American culture in the U.
S. a. Early leaders in U. S. hoped to create a national culture unified around Protestant Anglo-American values. b.
Nineteenth century immigration by Irish, newly freed slaves and Native Americans spurred development of public schools to ensure the dominant culture 2. Americanization programs, civil rights movements and the multicultural debate shows evidence of cultural wars for domination. 3. Perspective from particular viewpoints helps to understand motives Example: Native Americans viewed literacy as a tool to protect themselves while whites viewed it as a tool to use for their advantage. B. Schools are major player in ideological management 1.
One aspect of culture wars is ideological management 2. Ideological management is the creation and distribution of knowledge in a society and also refers to the effect of political and economic forces on the ideas disseminated to a society 3. Since knowledge is not neutral, the distribution of knowledge is not neutral and debate continues on how and what knowledge should be distributed and to whom. Example: The present debate on multiculturalism 4. Schools and mass media compete for influence over children's minds and national culture. C.
Racism plays a major role in U. S. schools and must be understood to understand evolution of U. S. schools. 1. The clash between racism and demands for equality are marked by the most violent and troubled parts of American history. 2.
Violence and racism are a basic part of the history of the American school. 3. For some white Americans racism and religious intolerance do not conflict with republicanism, democracy and equality. "Understanding how republicanism, democracy, and equality are compatible with racism and religious intolerance in some people's minds is key to understanding American violence and tragic history of education. " D. Economics plays a major role in the history of education. 1. 19 th century advocates of public schools believed that education could and would provide equality of opportunity and increased national wealth and these would end poverty. 2. Debates on whether or not public schools could accomplish the above goals played a central role in shaping the destiny of U. S. Schools.
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Research essay sample on U S Schools Plays A Major Role