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A high-level programming language developed by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Labs in the mid 1970 s. Although originally designed as a systems programming language, C has proved to be a powerful and flexible language that can be used for a variety of applications, from business programs to engineering. C is a particularly popular language for personal computer programmers because it is relatively small -- it requires less memory than other languages. The first major program written in C was the UNIX operating system, and for many years C was considered to be inextricably linked with UNIX. Now, however, C is an important language independent of UNIX. Although it is a high-level language, C is much closer to assembly language than are most other high-level languages.
This closeness to the underlying machine language allows C programmers to write very efficient code. The low-level nature of C, however, can make the language difficult to use for some types of applications. Pronounced lee-necks, A freely-distributable implementation of UNIX that runs on a number of hardware platforms, including Intel and Motorola microprocessors. It was developed mainly by Linus Torvalds.
Because it's free, and because it runs on many platforms, including PCs, Macintosh and Amigas, Linux has become extremely popular over the last couple years. Another popular, free version of UNIX that runs on Intel microprocessors is FreeBSD. A program interface that takes advantage of the computer's graphics capabilities to make the program easier to use. Well-designed graphical user interfaces can free the user from learning complex command languages. On the other hand, many users find that they work more effectively with a command-driven interface, especially if they already know the command language.
Graphical user interfaces, such as Microsoft Windows and the one used by the Apple Macintosh, feature the following basic components: 61623; pointer: A symbol that appears on the display screen and that you move to select objects and commands. Usually, the pointer appears as a small angled arrow. Text -processing applications, however, use an I-beam pointer that is shaped like a capital I. 61623; pointing device: A device, such as a mouse or trackball, that enables you to select objects on the display screen. 61623; icons: Small pictures that represent commands, files, or windows. By moving the pointer to the icon and pressing a mouse button, you can execute a command or convert the icon into a window. You can also move the icons around the display screen as if they were real objects on your desk. 61623; desktop: The area on the display screen where icons are grouped is often referred to as the desktop because the icons are intended to represent real objects on a real desktop. 61623; windows: You can divide the screen into different areas. In each window, you can run a different program or display a different file.
You can move windows around the display screen, and change their shape and size at will. 61623; menus: Most graphical user interfaces let you execute commands by selecting a choice from a menu. The first graphical user interface was designed by Xerox Corporation's Palo Alto Research Center in the 1970 s, but it was not until the 1980 s and the emergence of the Apple Macintosh that graphical user interfaces became popular. One reason for their slow acceptance was the fact that they require considerable CPU power and a high-quality monitor, which until recently were prohibitively expensive. In addition to their visual components, graphical user interfaces also make it easier to move data from one application to another. A true GUI includes standard formats for representing text and graphics. Because the formats are well-defined, different programs that run under a common GUI can share data.
This makes it possible, for example, to copy a graph created by a spreadsheet program into a document created by a word processor. Many DOS programs include some features of GUIs, such as menus, but are not graphics based. Such interfaces are sometimes called graphical character-based user interfaces to distinguish them from true GUIs. The ability to execute more than one task at the same time, a task being a program.
The terms multitasking and multiprocessing are often used interchangeably, although multiprocessing sometimes implies that more than one CPU is involved. In multitasking, only one CPU is involved, but it switches from one program to another so quickly that it gives the appearance of executing all of the programs at the same time. There are two basic types of multitasking: preemptive and cooperative. In preemptive multitasking, the operating system parcels out CPU time slices to each program. In cooperative multitasking, each program can control the CPU for as long as it needs it. If a program is not using the CPU, however, it can allow another program to use it temporarily.
OS/ 2, Windows 95, Windows NT, the Amiga operating system and UNIX use preemptive multitasking, whereas Microsoft Windows 3. x and the Multi Finder (for Macintosh computers) use cooperative multitasking. An operating system for PCs developed originally by Microsoft Corporation and IBM, but sold and managed solely by IBM. OS/ 2 is compatible with DOS and Windows, which means that it can run all DOS and Windows programs.
However, programs written specifically to run under OS/ 2 will not run under DOS or Windows. Since its introduction in the late 80 s, OS/ 2 has traveled a particularly rocky road. The first releases were hampered by a number of technical and marketing problems. Then Microsoft abandoned the project in favor of its own operating system solution, Microsoft Windows. That break spawned a feud between the two computer giants that is still being played out in many arenas. A programming language that is once removed from a computer's machine language.
Machine languages consist entirely of numbers and are almost impossible for humans to read and write. Assembly languages have the same structure and set of commands as machine languages, but they enable a programmer to use names instead of numbers. Each type of CPU has its own machine language and assembly language, so an assembly language program written for one type of CPU won't run on another. In the early days of programming, all programs were written in assembly language.
Now, most programs are written in a high-level language such as FORTRAN or C. Programmers still use assembly language when speed is essential or when they need to perform an operation that isn't possible in a high-level language. A hybrid of C and C++, it is Microsoft's newest programming language developed to compete with Sun's Java language. C# is an object-oriented programming language used with XML -based Web services on the. NET platform and designed for improving productivity in the development of Web applications. C# boasts type-safety, garbage collection, simplified type declarations, versioning and scalability support, and other features that make developing solutions faster and easier, especially for COM+ and Web services.
Microsoft critics have pointed to the similarities between C# and Java. A high-level programming language developed by Bjarne Stroustrup at Bell Labs. C++ adds object-oriented features to its predecessor, C. C++ is one of the most popular programming language for graphical applications, such as those that run in Windows and Macintosh environments. A programming language such as C, FORTRAN, or Pascal that enables a programmer to write programs that are more or less independent of a particular type of computer.
Such languages are considered high-level because they are closer to human languages and further from machine languages. In contrast, assembly languages are considered low-level because they are very close to machine languages. The main advantage of high-level languages over low-level languages is that they are easier to read, write, and maintain. Ultimately, programs written in a high-level language must be translated into machine language by a compiler or interpreter. The first high-level programming languages were designed in the 1950 s.
Now there are dozens of different languages, including Ada, Algol, BASIC, COBOL, C, C++, FORTRAN, LISP, Pascal, and Prolog. The lowest-level programming language (except for computers that utilize programmable microcode) Machine languages are the only languages understood by computers. While easily understood by computers, machine languages are almost impossible for humans to use because they consist entirely of numbers. Programmers, therefore, use either a high-level programming language or an assembly language. An assembly language contains the same instructions as a machine language, but the instructions and variables have names instead of being just numbers. Programs written in high-level languages are translated into assembly language or machine language by a compiler.
Assembly language programs are translated into machine language by a program called an assembler. Every CPU has its own unique machine language. Programs must be rewritten or recompiled, therefore, to run on different types of computers. A vocabulary and set of grammatical rules for instructing a computer to perform specific tasks.
The term programming language usually refers to high-level languages, such as BASIC, C, C++, COBOL, FORTRAN, Ada, and Pascal. Each language has a unique set of keywords (words that it understands) and a special syntax for organizing program instructions. High-level programming languages, while simple compared to human languages, are more complex than the languages the computer actually understands, called machine languages. Each different type of CPU has its own unique machine language. Lying between machine languages and high-level languages are languages called assembly languages.
Assembly languages are similar to machine languages, but they are much easier to program in because they allow a programmer to substitute names for numbers. Machine languages consist of numbers only. Lying above high-level languages are languages called fourth-generation languages (usually abbreviated 4 GL). 4 GLs are far removed from machine languages and represent the class of computer languages closest to human languages. your program into machine language so that the computer can understand it. There are two ways to do this: See compile and interpreter for more information about these two methods. The question of which language is best is one that consumes a lot of time and energy among computer professionals.
Every language has its strengths and weaknesses. For example, FORTRAN is a particularly good language for processing numerical data, but it does not lend itself very well to organizing large programs. Pascal is very good for writing well-structured and readable programs, but it is not as flexible as the C programming language. C++ embodies powerful object-oriented features, but it is complex and difficult to learn. The choice of which language to use depends on the type of computer the program is to run on, what sort of program it is, and the expertise of the programmer. An application development tool developed by Microsoft for C++ programmers.
Visual C++ supports object-oriented programming of 32 -bit Windows applications with an integrated development environment (IDE), a C/C++ compiler, and a class library called the Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC). The IDE includes an App Wizard, Class Wizard, and testing features to make programming easier. Visual C++ was introduced in 1993, and Release 4. 0 became available in 1996. Short for Microsoft Foundation Classes, a large library of C++ classes developed by Microsoft. For Windows -based applications written in C++, MFC provides an enormous headstart. One of the hardest parts of developing C++ programs is designing a logical hierarchy of classes.
With MFC, this work has already been done. MFC is bundled with several C++ compilers and is also available as part of the Microsoft Developer's Network (MSDN). A popular buzzword that can mean different things depending on how it is being used. Object-oriented programming (OOP) refers to a special typ...
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Research essay sample on Object Oriented Programming Programming Language